Aop: 30

Title

A descriptive title which references both the Molecular Initiating Event and Adverse Outcome.It should take the form “MIE leading to AO”. For example, “Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction” where Aromatase inhibition is the MIE and reproductive dysfunction the AO. In cases where the MIE is unknown or undefined, the earliest known KE in the chain (i.e., furthest upstream) should be used in lieu of the MIE and it should be made clear that the stated event is a KE and not the MIE. More help

Estrogen receptor antagonism leading to reproductive dysfunction

Short name
A short name should also be provided that succinctly summarises the information from the title. This name should not exceed 90 characters. More help
Estrogen receptor antagonism leading to reproductive dysfunction

Graphical Representation

A graphical summary of the AOP listing all the KEs in sequence, including the MIE (if known) and AO, and the pair-wise relationships (links or KERs) between those KEs should be provided. This is easily achieved using the standard box and arrow AOP diagram (see this page for example). The graphical summary is prepared and uploaded by the user (templates are available) and is often included as part of the proposal when AOP development projects are submitted to the OECD AOP Development Workplan. The graphical representation or AOP diagram provides a useful and concise overview of the KEs that are included in the AOP, and the sequence in which they are linked together. This can aid both the process of development, as well as review and use of the AOP (for more information please see page 19 of the Users' Handbook).If you already have a graphical representation of your AOP in electronic format, simple save it in a standard image format (e.g. jpeg, png) then click ‘Choose File’ under the “Graphical Representation” heading, which is part of the Summary of the AOP section, to select the file that you have just edited. Files must be in jpeg, jpg, gif, png, or bmp format. Click ‘Upload’ to upload the file. You should see the AOP page with the image displayed under the “Graphical Representation” heading. To remove a graphical representation file, click 'Remove' and then click 'OK.'  Your graphic should no longer be displayed on the AOP page. If you do not have a graphical representation of your AOP in electronic format, a template is available to assist you.  Under “Summary of the AOP”, under the “Graphical Representation” heading click on the link “Click to download template for graphical representation.” A Powerpoint template file should download via the default download mechanism for your browser. Click to open this file; it contains a Powerpoint template for an AOP diagram and instructions for editing and saving the diagram. Be sure to save the diagram as jpeg, jpg, gif, png, or bmp format. Once the diagram is edited to its final state, upload the image file as described above. More help

Authors

List the name and affiliation information of the individual(s)/organisation(s) that created/developed the AOP. In the context of the OECD AOP Development Workplan, this would typically be the individuals and organisation that submitted an AOP development proposal to the EAGMST. Significant contributors to the AOP should also be listed. A corresponding author with contact information may be provided here. This author does not need an account on the AOP-KB and can be distinct from the point of contact below. The list of authors will be included in any snapshot made from an AOP. More help

Daniel L. Villeneuve, US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division (villeneuve.dan@epa.gov)

Point of Contact

Indicate the point of contact for the AOP-KB entry itself. This person is responsible for managing the AOP entry in the AOP-KB and controls write access to the page by defining the contributors as described below. Clicking on the name will allow any wiki user to correspond with the point of contact via the email address associated with their user profile in the AOP-KB. This person can be the same as the corresponding author listed in the authors section but isn’t required to be. In cases where the individuals are different, the corresponding author would be the appropriate person to contact for scientific issues whereas the point of contact would be the appropriate person to contact about technical issues with the AOP-KB entry itself. Corresponding authors and the point of contact are encouraged to monitor comments on their AOPs and develop or coordinate responses as appropriate.  More help
Evgeniia Kazymova   (email point of contact)

Contributors

List user names of all  authors contributing to or revising pages in the AOP-KB that are linked to the AOP description. This information is mainly used to control write access to the AOP page and is controlled by the Point of Contact.  More help
  • Dan Villeneuve
  • Evgeniia Kazymova

Status

The status section is used to provide AOP-KB users with information concerning how actively the AOP page is being developed, what type of use or input the authors feel comfortable with given the current level of development, and whether it is part of the OECD AOP Development Workplan and has been reviewed and/or endorsed. “Author Status” is an author defined field that is designated by selecting one of several options from a drop-down menu (Table 3). The “Author Status” field should be changed by the point of contact, as appropriate, as AOP development proceeds. See page 22 of the User Handbook for definitions of selection options. More help
Author status OECD status OECD project SAAOP status
Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review 1.12 Included in OECD Work Plan
This AOP was last modified on April 05, 2021 18:16
The date the AOP was last modified is automatically tracked by the AOP-KB. The date modified field can be used to evaluate how actively the page is under development and how recently the version within the AOP-Wiki has been updated compared to any snapshots that were generated. More help

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time
Decrease, Population trajectory September 26, 2017 11:33
Antagonism, Estrogen receptor September 16, 2017 10:14
Reduction, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver September 16, 2017 10:16
Reduction, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations September 16, 2017 10:14
Reduction, Vitellogenin accumulation into oocytes and oocyte growth/development September 16, 2017 10:14
Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning March 20, 2017 17:52
Antagonism, Estrogen receptor leads to Reduction, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver November 30, 2016 12:10
Reduction, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver leads to Reduction, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations March 20, 2017 12:58
Reduction, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations leads to Reduction, Vitellogenin accumulation into oocytes and oocyte growth/development March 20, 2017 13:21
Reduction, Vitellogenin accumulation into oocytes and oocyte growth/development leads to Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning March 20, 2017 13:35
Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning leads to Decrease, Population trajectory March 20, 2017 13:49

Abstract

In the abstract section, authors should provide a concise and informative summation of the AOP under development that can stand-alone from the AOP page. Abstracts should typically be 200-400 words in length (similar to an abstract for a journal article). Suggested content for the abstract includes the following: The background/purpose for initiation of the AOP’s development (if there was a specific intent) A brief description of the MIE, AO, and/or major KEs that define the pathway A short summation of the overall WoE supporting the AOP and identification of major knowledge gaps (if any) If a brief statement about how the AOP may be applied (optional). The aim is to capture the highlights of the AOP and its potential scientific and regulatory relevance More help

This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between antagonism of estrogen receptor in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay. The OECD 229 assay serves as screening assay for endocrine disruption and associated reproductive impairment (OECD 2012a). Cumulative fecundity is one of several variables known to be of demographic significance in forecasting fish population trends. Therefore, this AOP has utility in supporting the application of measures of ER antagonism, or in silico predictions of the ability to antagonize ER as a means to identify chemicals with known potential to adversely affect fish populations.

Background (optional)

This optional subsection should be used to provide background information for AOP reviewers and users that is considered helpful in understanding the biology underlying the AOP and the motivation for its development. The background should NOT provide an overview of the AOP, its KEs or KERs, which are captured in more detail below. Examples of potential uses of the optional background section are listed on pages 24-25 of the User Handbook. More help

Summary of the AOP

This section is for information that describes the overall AOP. The information described in section 1 is entered on the upper portion of an AOP page within the AOP-Wiki. This is where some background information may be provided, the structure of the AOP is described, and the KEs and KERs are listed. More help

Events:

Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
An MIE is a specialised KE that represents the beginning (point of interaction between a stressor and the biological system) of an AOP. More help
Key Events (KE)
This table summarises all of the KEs of the AOP. This table is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KEs are added to the AOP. Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KE description page.  More help
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP.  More help
Sequence Type Event ID Title Short name
1 MIE 112 Antagonism, Estrogen receptor Antagonism, Estrogen receptor
2 KE 285 Reduction, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver Reduction, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver
3 KE 221 Reduction, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations Reduction, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations
4 KE 309 Reduction, Vitellogenin accumulation into oocytes and oocyte growth/development Reduction, Vitellogenin accumulation into oocytes and oocyte growth/development
5 KE 78 Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning
6 AO 360 Decrease, Population trajectory Decrease, Population trajectory

Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)

TESTINGThis table summarises all of the KERs of the AOP and is populated in the AOP-Wiki as KERs are added to the AOP. Each table entry acts as a link to the individual KER description page.To add a key event relationship click on either Add relationship: events adjacent in sequence or Add relationship: events non-adjacent in sequence.For example, if the intended sequence of KEs for the AOP is [KE1 > KE2 > KE3 > KE4]; relationships between KE1 and KE2; KE2 and KE3; and KE3 and KE4 would be defined using the add relationship: events adjacent in sequence button.  Relationships between KE1 and KE3; KE2 and KE4; or KE1 and KE4, for example, should be created using the add relationship: events non-adjacent button. This helps to both organize the table with regard to which KERs define the main sequence of KEs and those that provide additional supporting evidence and aids computational analysis of AOP networks, where non-adjacent KERs can result in artifacts (see Villeneuve et al. 2018; DOI: 10.1002/etc.4124).After clicking either option, the user will be brought to a new page entitled ‘Add Relationship to AOP.’ To create a new relationship, select an upstream event and a downstream event from the drop down menus. The KER will automatically be designated as either adjacent or non-adjacent depending on the button selected. The fields “Evidence” and “Quantitative understanding” can be selected from the drop-down options at the time of creation of the relationship, or can be added later. See the Users Handbook, page 52 (Assess Evidence Supporting All KERs for guiding questions, etc.).  Click ‘Create [adjacent/non-adjacent] relationship.’  The new relationship should be listed on the AOP page under the heading “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)”. To edit a key event relationship, click ‘Edit’ next to the name of the relationship you wish to edit. The user will be directed to an Editing Relationship page where they can edit the Evidence, and Quantitative Understanding fields using the drop down menus. Once finished editing, click ‘Update [adjacent/non-adjacent] relationship’ to update these fields and return to the AOP page.To remove a key event relationship to an AOP page, under Summary of the AOP, next to “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)” click ‘Remove’ The relationship should no longer be listed on the AOP page under the heading “Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)”. More help

Network View

The AOP-Wiki automatically generates a network view of the AOP. This network graphic is based on the information provided in the MIE, KEs, AO, KERs and WoE summary tables. The width of the edges representing the KERs is determined by its WoE confidence level, with thicker lines representing higher degrees of confidence. This network view also shows which KEs are shared with other AOPs. More help

Stressors

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. Although AOPs themselves are not chemical or stressor-specific, linking to stressor terms known to be relevant to different AOPs can aid users in searching for AOPs that may be relevant to a given stressor. More help

Life Stage Applicability

Identify the life stage for which the KE is known to be applicable. More help
Life stage Evidence
Adult, reproductively mature High

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
zebra danio Danio rerio NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas NCBI
medaka Oryzias latipes NCBI

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Sex Evidence
Female High

Overall Assessment of the AOP

This section addresses the relevant biological domain of applicability (i.e., in terms of taxa, sex, life stage, etc.) and WoE for the overall AOP as a basis to consider appropriate regulatory application (e.g., priority setting, testing strategies or risk assessment). The goal of the overall assessment is to provide a high level synthesis and overview of the relative confidence in the AOP and where the significant gaps or weaknesses are (if they exist). Users or readers can drill down into the finer details captured in the KE and KER descriptions, and/or associated summary tables, as appropriate to their needs.Assessment of the AOP is organised into a number of steps. Guidance on pages 59-62 of the User Handbook is available to facilitate assignment of categories of high, moderate, or low confidence for each consideration. While it is not necessary to repeat lengthy text that appears elsewhere in the AOP description (or related KE and KER descriptions), a brief explanation or rationale for the selection of high, moderate, or low confidence should be made. More help
  • Overall Assessment of the AOP
  • Concordance of dose-response relationships:
  • In a 42 d static renewal exposure to tamoxifen, significant, concentration dependent reduction in the number of clutches and cumulative fecundity were observed for zebrafish (Wester et al. 2003).
  • A concentration-dependent reduction in circulating vitellogenin concentrations was detected in female medaka exposed to tamoxifen for 21 d (Sun et al. 2007b). Vitellogenin reductions occurred at a lower concentration (i.e., ≥ 25 μg tamoxifen/L) than reductions in fecundity (i.e., 625 μg tamoxifen/L).
  • Temporal concordance among the key events and adverse effect: To date, there are no time-course studies that allow for robust evaluation of the temporal concordance of the entire AOP. However, the temporal concordance of some of the key event relationships has been established. Specifically, reductions in transcription of vitellogenin mRNAs have been shown to precede changes in circulating vitellogenin concentrations.
  • Consistency:
  • In zebrafish exposed to tamoxifen, reductions in the number of clutches and cumulative egg production were predicted to result in population reductions, although this was in conjunction with altered sex ratios as a concurrent effect in a partial life-cycle test (Wester et al. 2003).
  • In medaka co-exposed to 17β-estradiol (E2; 200 ng/L) and 10, 50, or 250 μg tamoxifen/L, exposure to 250 μg tamoxifen significantly reduced fecundity compared to both controls and fish exposed to E2 alone (Sun et al. 2009).
  • Fecundity was significantly reduced in medaka exposed to 625 μg tamoxifen/L (Sun et al. 2007b).
  • Increases in atretic oocytes and oviducts filled with degenerated eggs were observed in female zebrafish exposed to tamoxifen (Wester et al. 2003). Reduced vitellogenin immuno staining was observed in tamoxifen-exposed zebrafish, based on blind semi-quantitative scoring (van der Ven et al. 2007; Wester et al. 2003). The results are therefore consistent with the AOP.
  • In Japanese medaka co-exposed to E2 and tamoxifen for 21 d, both plasma vitellogenin and fecundity were reduced in a tamoxifen concentration-dependent manner (Sun et al. 2009). Although from a co-exposure, the results are broadly consistent with the AOP.
  • In Japanese medaka exposed to tamoxifen for 21 d, plasma vitellogenin in females was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner and cumulative fecundity was reduced at the maximum concentration tested (Sun et al. 2007b). The results are consistent with the AOP.
  • Dietary exposure to tamoxifen was also shown to reduce circulating vitellogenin concentrations in female medaka (Chikae et al. 2004). The results are consistent with the AOP.
  • In tilapia co-injected with E2 or o,p-DDT, tamoxifen inhibited the stimulatory effects of E2 and o,p-DDT on plasma vitellogenin (measured as alkaline labile phosphorous). Alkaline labile phosphorous was not reduced following injection with tamoxifen alone (Leanos-Castaneda et al. 2002). These results are neither entirely consistent nor inconsistent with the AOP.
  • Uncertainties, inconsistencies, and data gaps:
  • In a 42 d in vivo, flow through, exposures to tamoxifen citrate, no significant reductions in circulating vitellogenin or cumulative fecundity were detected (Williams et al. 2007). The results are therefore inconsistent with the AOP.
  • Some uncertainty remains regarding which ER subtype(s) regulates vitellogenin gene expression in the liver of fish. In general, the literature suggests a close interplay between several ER subtypes in the regulation of vitellogenesis. Consequently, at present, the AOP is generalized to impacts on all ER subtypes, even though it remains possible that impacts on a particular sub-type may drive the adverse response.
  • Griffin et al. reported that morpholino knock-downs of either esr1 (ERα) or esr2b (ERβb) prevented estradiol-mediated induction of vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Griffin et al. 2013).
  • Using selective agonists agonists and antagonists for ERα and ERβ, it was concluded that ERβ was primarily responsible for inducing vitellogenin production in rainbow trout and that compounds exhibiting ERα selectivity would not be detected using a vitellogenin bioassay (Leanos-Castaneda and Van Der Kraak 2007). However, a subsequent study conducted in tilapia concluded that agonistic and antagonistic characteristics of mammalian, isoform-specific ER agonists and antagonists, cannot be reliably extrapolated to piscine ERs (Davis et al. 2010).
  • Expression of both ERα1 and ERβ1 were strongly correlated with plasma vitellogenin concentrations over the reproductive cycle of rainbow trout (Nagler et al. 2012).
  • Based on RNA interference knock-down experiments Nelson and Habibi proposed a model in which all ER subtypes are involved in E2-mediated vitellogenesis, with ERβ isoforms stimulating expression of both vitellogenin and ERα gene expression, and ERα helping to drive vitellogenesis, particularly as it becomes more abundant following sensitization (Nelson and Habibi 2010).
  • There remains uncertainty as to whether there is a direct biological linkage, as opposed to correlation only, between impaired VTG uptake into oocytes and impaired spawning/reduced cumulative fecundity. Plausible biological connections have been hypothesized but have not yet been tested experimentally.

Domain of Applicability

The relevant biological domain(s) of applicability in terms of sex, life-stage, taxa, and other aspects of biological context are defined in this section. Biological domain of applicability is informed by the “Description” and “Biological Domain of Applicability” sections of each KE and KER description (see sections 2G and 3E for details). In essence the taxa/life-stage/sex applicability is defined based on the groups of organisms for which the measurements represented by the KEs can feasibly be measured and the functional and regulatory relationships represented by the KERs are operative.The relevant biological domain of applicability of the AOP as a whole will nearly always be defined based on the most narrowly restricted of its KEs and KERs. For example, if most of the KEs apply to either sex, but one is relevant to females only, the biological domain of applicability of the AOP as a whole would be limited to females. While much of the detail defining the domain of applicability may be found in the individual KE and KER descriptions, the rationale for defining the relevant biological domain of applicability of the overall AOP should be briefly summarised on the AOP page. More help

Life Stage: This AOP applies to sexually mature animals. Sex: This AOP applies to females. Taxonomic Applicability: Based on the taxonomic applicability of the component key events, this AOP could potentially apply to most oviparous chordates.

Domain(s) of Applicability

  • Sex: The AOP applies to females only
  • Life stages: The relevant life stages for this AOP are reproductively mature adults. This AOP does not apply to adult stages that lack a sexually mature ovary, for example as a result of seasonal or environmentally-induced gonadal senescence (i.e., through control of temperature, photo-period, etc. in a laboratory setting).
  • Taxonomic: At present, the assumed taxonomic applicability domain of this AOP is class Osteichthyes. In all likelihood, the AOP will also prove applicable to all classes of fish (e.g., Agnatha and Chondrithyes as well). Additionally, all the key events described should be conserved among all oviparous vertebrates, suggesting that the AOP may also have relevance for amphibians, reptiles, and birds. However, species-specific differences in reproductive strategies/life histories, ADME (adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination), compensatory reproductive endocrine responses may influence the outcomes, particularly from a quantitative standpoint.

Essentiality of the Key Events

An important aspect of assessing an AOP is evaluating the essentiality of its KEs. The essentiality of KEs can only be assessed relative to the impact of manipulation of a given KE (e.g., experimentally blocking or exacerbating the event) on the downstream sequence of KEs defined for the AOP. Consequently evidence supporting essentiality is assembled on the AOP page, rather than on the independent KE pages that are meant to stand-alone as modular units without reference to other KEs in the sequence.The nature of experimental evidence that is relevant to assessing essentiality relates to the impact on downstream KEs and the AO if upstream KEs are prevented or modified. This includes: Direct evidence: directly measured experimental support that blocking or preventing a KE prevents or impacts downstream KEs in the pathway in the expected fashion. Indirect evidence: evidence that modulation or attenuation in the magnitude of impact on a specific KE (increased effect or decreased effect) is associated with corresponding changes (increases or decreases) in the magnitude or frequency of one or more downstream KEs.When assembling the support for essentiality of the KEs, authors should organise relevant data in a tabular format. The objective is to summarise briefly the nature and numbers of investigations in which the essentiality of KEs has been experimentally explored either directly or indirectly. See pages 50-51 in the User Handbook for further definitions and clarifications.  More help

Evidence Assessment

The biological plausibility, empirical support, and quantitative understanding from each KER in an AOP are assessed together.  Biological plausibility of each of the KERs in the AOP is the most influential consideration in assessing WoE or degree of confidence in an overall hypothesised AOP for potential regulatory application (Meek et al., 2014; 2014a). Empirical support entails consideration of experimental data in terms of the associations between KEs – namely dose-response concordance and temporal relationships between and across multiple KEs. It is examined most often in studies of dose-response/incidence and temporal relationships for stressors that impact the pathway. While less influential than biological plausibility of the KERs and essentiality of the KEs, empirical support can increase confidence in the relationships included in an AOP. For clarification on how to rate the given empirical support for a KER, as well as examples, see pages 53- 55 of the User Handbook.  More help

The weight of evidence for each of the KERs comprising the AOP are ranked moderate to strong. Biological plausibility at the molecular and cellular level of the early key events is very strong. Some uncertainties regarding the mechanistic details of the connection between reduced vtg availability and uptake limit the strength of evidence to some degree. However, there are considerable evidence to support the idea that ER antagonism can ultimately lead to reproductive failure. Overall weight of evidence is moderate.

Quantitative Understanding

Some proof of concept examples to address the WoE considerations for AOPs quantitatively have recently been developed, based on the rank ordering of the relevant Bradford Hill considerations (i.e., biological plausibility, essentiality and empirical support) (Becker et al., 2017; Becker et al, 2015; Collier et al., 2016). Suggested quantitation of the various elements is expert derived, without collective consideration currently of appropriate reporting templates or formal expert engagement. Though not essential, developers may wish to assign comparative quantitative values to the extent of the supporting data based on the three critical Bradford Hill considerations for AOPs, as a basis to contribute to collective experience.Specific attention is also given to how precisely and accurately one can potentially predict an impact on KEdownstream based on some measurement of KEupstream. This is captured in the form of quantitative understanding calls for each KER. See pages 55-56 of the User Handbook for a review of quantitative understanding for KER's. More help

A quantitative relationship between ER antagonism (the MIE) and reductions in vitellogenin transcription and translation have not been well established. However, a correlative relationship between plasma vitellogenin concentrations and cumulative fecundity has been reported (Miller et al. 2007) and applied for quantitative modeling (Ankley et al.

Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

At their discretion, the developer may include in this section discussion of the potential applications of an AOP to support regulatory decision-making. This may include, for example, possible utility for test guideline development or refinement, development of integrated testing and assessment approaches, development of (Q)SARs / or chemical profilers to facilitate the grouping of chemicals for subsequent read-across, screening level hazard assessments or even risk assessment. While it is challenging to foresee all potential regulatory application of AOPs and any application will ultimately lie within the purview of regulatory agencies, potential applications may be apparent as the AOP is being developed, particularly if it was initiated with a particular application in mind. This optional section is intended to provide the developer with an opportunity to suggest potential regulatory applications and describe his or her rationale.To edit the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section, on an AOP page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing AOP.” Scroll down to the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. In the upper right hand menu, click ‘Update AOP’ to save your changes and return to the AOP page or 'Update and continue' to continue editing AOP text sections.  The new text should appear under the “Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP” section on the AOP page. More help

References

List the bibliographic references to original papers, books or other documents used to support the AOP. More help
  • OECD. 2012a. Test no. 229: Fish short term reproduction assay. Paris, France:Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
  • Wester P, van den Brandhof E, Vos J, van der Ven L. 2003. Identification of endocrine disruptive effects in the aquatic environment - a partial life cycle assay in zebrafish. (RIVM Report). Bilthoven, the Netherlands:Joint Dutch Environment Ministry
  • Sun L, Zha J, Spear PA, Wang Z. 2007b. Tamoxifen effects on the early life stages and reproduction of japanese medaka (oryzias latipes). Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 24:23-29.
  • Sun L, Zha J, Wang Z. 2009. Effects of binary mixtures of estrogen and antiestrogens on japanese medaka (oryzias latipes). Aquatic toxicology 93:83-89.
  • Williams TD, Caunter JE, Lillicrap AD, Hutchinson TH, Gillings EG, Duffell S. 2007. Evaluation of the reproductive effects of tamoxifen citrate in partial and full life-cycle studies using fathead minnows (pimephales promelas). Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 26:695-707.
  • van der Ven LT, van den Brandhof EJ, Vos JH, Wester PW. 2007. Effects of the estrogen agonist 17beta-estradiol and antagonist tamoxifen in a partial life-cycle assay with zebrafish (danio rerio). Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC 26:92-99.
  • Chikae M, Ikeda R, Hasan Q, Morita Y, Tamiya E. 2004. Effects of tamoxifen, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, flutamide, and methyltestosterone on plasma vitellogenin levels of male and female japanese medaka (oryzias latipes). Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 17:29-33.
  • Leanos-Castaneda O, Van Der Kraak G. 2007. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, eralpha and erbeta, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 224:116-125.
  • Griffin LB, January KE, Ho KW, Cotter KA, Callard GV. 2013. Morpholino mediated knockdown of eralpha, erbetaa and erbetab mrnas in zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos reveals differential regulation of estrogen-inducible genes. Endocrinology.
  • Davis LK, Katsu Y, Iguchi T, Lerner DT, Hirano T, Grau EG. 2010. Transcriptional activity and biological effects of mammalian estrogen receptor ligands on three hepatic estrogen receptors in mozambique tilapia. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 122:272-278.
  • Nagler JJ, Cavileer TD, Verducci JS, Schultz IR, Hook SE, Hayton WL. 2012. Estrogen receptor mrna expression patterns in the liver and ovary of female rainbow trout over a complete reproductive cycle. General and comparative endocrinology 178:556-561.
  • Nelson ER, Habibi HR. 2010. Functional significance of nuclear estrogen receptor subtypes in the liver of goldfish. Endocrinology 151:1668-1676.
  • Miller DH, Jensen KM, Villeneuve DL, Kahl MD, Makynen EA, Durhan EJ, Ankley GT. 2007. Linkage of biochemical responses to population-level effects: a case study with vitellogenin in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 26: 521-527.