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Reduced, Anterior swim bladder inflation leads to Reduced, Hearing
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Apart from a role in buoyancy that is not completely understood with regard to the relation to the function of the posterior chamber, the anterior chamber of the swim bladder of many fish species has an additional role in the production and/or detection of sound (Popper et al., 1974; Bang et al., 2002). Several fish families have Weberian ossicles (tiny bones, also called the Weberian apparatus), connecting the anterior chamber to the inner ear resulting in an amplification of sound waves. Therefore it is plausible to assume that if the anterior chamber does not inflate or inflates to a reduced size, the connection to the Weberian ossicles is lost and hearing is impaired.
Evidence Supporting this KER
It is plausible to assume that if the anterior chamber does not inflate or inflates to a reduced size, the connection to the Weberian ossicles is lost and hearing is impaired.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Within fish we can distinguish between hearing generalists (non-specialists) such as cichlids, salmonids, sunfishes and toadfishes and hearing specialists which have accessory hearing structures (specializations) such as the Weberian apparatus in otophysines, supbrabranchial chambers in labyrinth fish and auditory bullae in mormyrids (Ladich and Wysocki, 2003; Ladich and Fay, 2013). In fish that do not possess an anterior chamber with a function in hearing this KER is not applicable.
Bang, P.I., Yelick, P.C., Malicki, J.J., Sewell, W.F., 2002. High-throughput behavioral screening method for detecting auditory response defects in zebrafish. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 118, 177-187.
Ladich, F., Fay, R.R., 2013. Auditory evoked potential audiometry in fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 23, 317-364.
Ladich, F., Wysocki, L.E., 2003. How does tripus extirpation affect auditory sensitivity in goldfish? Hearing Research 182, 119-129.
Lechner, W., Ladich, F., 2008. Size matters: Diversity in swimbladders and Weberian ossicles affects hearing in catfishes. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 1681-1689.
Popper, A.N., 1974. Response of swim bladder of goldfish (Carassius auratus) to acoustic stimuli. Journal of Experimental Biology 60, 295-304.
Yan, H.Y., Fine, M.L., Horn, N.S., Colon, W.E., 2000. Variability in the role of the gasbladder in fish audition. Journal of Comparative Physiology a-Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology 186, 435-445.