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Relationship: 1836


A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Interaction of α-diketones with arginine residues leads to Proteasomal dysfunction

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
α-diketone-induced bronchiolitis obliterans adjacent Not Specified Not Specified Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

α-diketones are able to react with proteins, predominantly by covalent binding with arginine residues. This interaction with proteins can affect their structure and compromise their function. Arginine-rich proteins or enzymes with arginine residues at active sites are likely the critical molecular targets.

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The toxic effects of the electrophilic α-diketones are likely associated with their direct covalent interactions with cellular nucleophiles. In this way, α-diketones react with proteins, displaying a great affinity for arginine residues. Since arginine residues are often located at the active sites of enzymes the interaction with α-diketones can cause loss of enzyme activity. Also the interaction with other proteins can result in altered structure and function.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

The target proteins are likely arginine-rich proteins or enzymes containing arginine residues at their active sites. However, at present it is unclear which proteins are the critical targets for the observed toxicity after the inhalation of α-diketones.

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Harden, A., Norris, D.,1911. The diacetyl reaction for proteins. J. Physiol. 42, 332–336.

Hubbs, A. F., Fluharty, K. L., Edwards, R. J., Barnabei, J. L., Grantham, J. T., Palmer, S. M., … Sriram, K. (2016). Accumulation of Ubiquitin and Sequestosome-1 Implicate Protein Damage in Diacetyl-Induced Cytotoxicity. In American Journal of Pathology (Vol. 186, pp. 2887–2908).

Mathews, J. M., Watson, S. L., Snyder, R. W., Burgess, J. P., & Morgan, D. L. (2010). Reaction of the butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) with N-??-acetylarginine: A model for epitope formation with pulmonary proteins in the etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(24), 12761–12768.

Anders, M. W. (2017). Diacetyl and related flavorant α-Diketones: Biotransformation, cellular interactions, and respiratory-tract toxicity. Toxicology, 388, 21–29.

Chen, G., Chen, X., 2003. Arginine residues in the active site of human phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1). J. Biol. Chem. 278, 36358–36364.

Ahmed, N., and Thomalley, P. J. (2003). Quantitative screening of protein biomarkers of early glycation, advanced glycation, oxidation and nitrosation of cellular and extracellular proteins by mass spectrometry multiple reaction monitoring. Biochem Soc Trans 31, 1417–22.

Xia, C., et al., 1993. Chemical modification of GSH transferase P 1-1 confirms the presence of Arg-13, Lys-44 and one carboxylate group in the GSH-binding domain of the active site. Biochem. J. 293, 357–362.

More, S.S., et al., 2012a. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, forms a covalent adduct with 2-deoxyguanosine, uncoils DNA, and leads to cell death. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60, 3311–3317.

Dorado, L., et al., 1992. A contribution to the study of the structure-mutagenicity relationship for a-dicarbonyl compounds using the Ames test. Mutat. Res. Fundam. Mol. Mech. Mutagen. 269, 301–306.