To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KER:402

Relationship: 402

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Metabolism of AFB1, Production of Reactive Electrophiles leads to Formation, Pro-mutagenic DNA Adducts

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AFB1: Mutagenic Mode-of-Action leading to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) adjacent High Agnes Aggy (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

AFB1 must be metabolized via Cytochromes P450 to a specific highly reactive form of AFB1, the exo-epoxide AFB1-8,9-epoxide, in order for DNA binding and formation of a pro-mutagenic DNA adduct to occur. CYP3A4 forms only the exo-form of this reactive epoxide. CYP1A2, inducible in liver, forms both the exo- and the endo-epoxides apparently with a lower Vmax and higher Km than CYP3A4 in human liver (Degen and Neumann,1981; Groopman and Kensler, 2005; Guengerich et al., 1996; Ueng et al., 1995).). Figure X, taken from Pottenger et al., 2014, depicts the metabolism of AFB1. The activated metabolite, exo-epoxide, must then travel from the endoplasmic reticulum, (site of CYP450 enzyme and exo-epoxide of formation) to the nucleus, in order to bind to DNA to form the pro-mutagenic N7-AFB1-G adduct. This can further react to form the AFB1 FAPy adduct.

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The biological plausibility of the KER pre-MIE to MIE is strong; without the specific, CYP-450-mediated metabolic activation of AFB1 to the exo-epoxide, the necessary pro-mutagenic N7-AFB1-G adduct will not form, and the sequence of key events will not continue further.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

The available data do not include dose-response data for activation of AFB1 to the key metabolite, exo-8,9-epoxide, which precludes presenting a quantitatively defined relationship between activation and formation of the pro-mutagenic N7-AFB1-G adducts. However, this does not diminish the certainty in the essentiality of this KER.

There are some data to inform the persistence of N7-AFB1-G and its transformation to AFB1-FAPy (Brown et al., 2006; Croy and Wogan, 1991a), but more detailed data, including dose-response data, would be useful.

No inconsistencies were identified vis-à-vis this KER; the conundrum of the high AFB1 metabolic capacity of the mouse and its resistance to the adverse outcome has been investigated and demonstrated to be due to the high rate of detoxication of the exo-epoxide by mouse GSTs (Degen and Neumann, 1981; Monroe and Eaton, 1987, 1988).

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

The requirement for metabolism of AFB1 to a specific reactive form is applicable to all mammalian systems evaluated; it is also applicable to certain birds (turkeys, etc.) (Gregory et al., 1983; IARC, 1993). Humans, non-human primates, rats, mice, poultry, and fish have all demonstrated susceptibility to AFB1-induced liver tumors (Asplin and Canaghan, 1961; Eaton and Gallagher, 1994; Guengerich et al., 1996). Species that preferentially metabolize AFB1 to the exo-8,9-epoxide are more susceptible to AFB1 carcinogenicity.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

F.D. Asplin, R.B.A. Carnaghan, (1961). The toxicity of certain groundnut meals for poultry with special reference to their effect on ducklings and chickens. Vet. Rec. 73:1215– 1219.

Brown KL, Deng JZ, Iyer RS, Iyer LG, Voehler MW, Stone MP, Harris CM, Harris TM (2006). Unraveling the aflatoxin-FAPY conundrum: Structural basis of the formamidopyrimidine-type DNA adduct of aflatoxin B1. J Am Chem Soc 128:15188-15199.

Croy RG, Wogan GN (1981a). Temporal patterns of covalent DNA adducts in rat liver after single and multiple doses of aflatoxin B1. Cancer Res 41:197-203.

Degen GH, Neumann HG (1981). Differences in aflatoxin B1-susceptibility of rat and mouse are correlated with the capability in vitro to inactivate aflatoxin B1-epoxide. Carcinogenesis 2:299–306.

Eaton DL, and Gallagher EP (1994). Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 34:135-172.

Gregory 3rd JF, Goldstein SL, Edds GT. (1983). Metabolite distribution and rate of residue clearance in turkeys fed a diet containing aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol, 21, 463–7.

Groopman JD, Kensler TW (2005). Role of metabolism and viruses in aflatoxin-induced liver cancer. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206:131-137.

Guengerich FP, Johnson WW, Ueng Y-F, Yamazaki H, Shimada T (1996). Involvement of Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer. Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 3):557-562.

IARC (1993). Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Vol. 56, 245-395.

Johnson NM, Egner PA, Baxter VK, Sporn MB, Wible RS, Sutter TR, Groopman JD, Kensler TW, Roebuck BD. (2014). Complete protection against aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature, and genotoxicity threshold. Cancer Prev Res. 7(7):658-665.

Lutz, W. (1987). Quantitative evaluation of DNA-binding data in vivo for low-dose extrapolations. Arch.Toxicol, Suppl. 11: 66-74.

Monroe DH, Eaton DL. (1987). Comparative effects of butylated hydroxyanisole on hepatic in vivo DNA binding and in vitro biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 in the rat and the mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 90, 401–409.

Monroe DH, Eaton DL. (1988). Effects of modulation of hepatic glutathione on biotransformation and covalent binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA in the mouse. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 94(1):118-127.

Pottenger, L.H., Andrews LS, Bachman AN, Boogaard PJ, Cadet J, Embry MR, Farmer PB, Himmelstein MW, Jarabek AM, Martin EA, Mauthe RJ, Persaud R, Preston RJ, Schoeny R, Skare J, Swenberg JA, Williams GM, Zeiger E, Zhang F, Kim JH. (2014). An organizational approach for the assessment of DNA adduct data in risk assessment: case studies for aflatoxin B1, tamoxifen and vinyl chloride. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 44(4):348-391.

Roebuck BD, Liu Y-L, Rogers AE, et al. (1991). Protection against aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in F344 rats by 5-(2-pyrazinyl)-4-methyl-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (oltipraz): predictive role for short term molecular dosimetry. Cancer Res, 51, 5501–5506.

Ueng Y-F, Shimada T, Yamazaki H, Guengerich FP (1995). Oxidation of aflatoxin B1 by bacterial recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chem Res Toxiol 8:218-225.

Yates MS, Kwak M-K, Egner PA, et al. (2006). Potent protection against aflatoxin-induced tumorigenesis through induction of Nrf2-regulated pathways by the triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9 (11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole. Cancer Res, 66, 2488–2494.