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Reduction, Testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells leads to Reduction, testosterone level
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|PPARα activation in utero leading to impaired fertility in males||adjacent||High||Arthur Author (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
|PPARα activation leading to impaired fertility in adult male rodents||adjacent||High||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Not under active development||Under Development|
|Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Mediated Adult Leydig Cell Dysfunction Leading to Decreased Male Fertility||adjacent||Allie Always (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Impairment of testosterone production in testes directly impacts on testosterone levels.
Evidence Supporting this KER
Within the testes, steroid synthesis takes place within the mitochondria of Leydig cells. Testosterone production by Leydig cells is primarily under the control of LH. LH indirectly stimulates the transfer of cholesterol into the mitochondrial matrix to cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc, CYP11A), which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. Pregnenolone diffuses to the smooth endoplasmic reticulum where it is further metabolized to testosterone via the actions of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ5-Δ4-isomerase (3β-HSD), 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase (P450c17, CYP17), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type III (17HSD3). For review see (Payne & Hales, 2013). Therefore, inhibition or impairment of the testosterone production directly impacts on the levels of testosterone.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Ses Table 1.
Akingbemi, B. T. 2001. “Modulation of Rat Leydig Cell Steroidogenic Function by Di(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate.” Biology of Reproduction 65 (4) (October 1): 1252–1259. doi:10.1095/biolreprod65.4.1252.
Borch, Julie, Ole Ladefoged, Ulla Hass, and Anne Marie Vinggaard. 2004. “Steroidogenesis in Fetal Male Rats Is Reduced by DEHP and DINP, but Endocrine Effects of DEHP Are Not Modulated by DEHA in Fetal, Prepubertal and Adult Male Rats.” Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 18 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2003.10.011.
Borch, Julie, Stine Broeng Metzdorff, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Leon Brokken, and Majken Dalgaard. 2006. “Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Androgenic Effects of Diethylhexyl Phthalate in Fetal Rat Testis.” Toxicology 223 (1-2) (June 1): 144–55. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.03.015.
Culty, Martine, Raphael Thuillier, Wenping Li, Yan Wang, Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles, Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Kostantinos M Triantafilou, Barry R Zirkin, and Vassilios Papadopoulos. 2008. “In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Exerts Both Short-Term and Long-Lasting Suppressive Effects on Testosterone Production in the Rat.” Biology of Reproduction 78 (6) (June): 1018–28. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.107.065649.
Hannas, Bethany R, Christy S Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Nicola Evans, Paul M D Foster, Earl L Gray, and Vickie S Wilson. 2012. “Genomic Biomarkers of Phthalate-Induced Male Reproductive Developmental Toxicity: A Targeted RT-PCR Array Approach for Defining Relative Potency.” Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology 125 (2) (February): 544–57. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr315.
Parks, L. G. 2000. “The Plasticizer Diethylhexyl Phthalate Induces Malformations by Decreasing Fetal Testosterone Synthesis during Sexual Differentiation in the Male Rat.” Toxicological Sciences 58 (2) (December 1): 339–349. doi:10.1093/toxsci/58.2.339.
Shultz, V. D. 2001. “Altered Gene Profiles in Fetal Rat Testes after in Utero Exposure to Di(n-Butyl) Phthalate.” Toxicological Sciences 64 (2) (December 1): 233–242. doi:10.1093/toxsci/64.2.233.
Wilson, Vickie S., Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and L.Earl Gray. 2004. “Phthalate Ester-Induced Gubernacular Lesions Are Associated with Reduced insl3 Gene Expression in the Fetal Rat Testis.” Toxicology Letters 146 (3) (February): 207–215. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.09.012.