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Relationship: 444

Title

The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

T4 in neuronal tissue, Decreased leads to BDNF, Reduced

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) leads to learning and memory impairment adjacent Moderate Low Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help
Sex Evidence
Mixed High

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help
Term Evidence
Birth to < 1 month High
Adult Moderate
During brain development High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

It is widely accepted that the thyroid hormones (TH) have a prominent role in the development and function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and their action has been closely linked to the cognitive function because of their importance in the neocortical development (Gilbert et al., 2012). During the early cortical network development TH has been shown to influence the number of cholinergic neurons and the degree of innervation of hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions (Oh et al., 1991; Thompson and Potter 2000), and to regulate the morphology and function of GABAergic neurons (Westerholz et al., 2010).

One of the mediators of this regulation has been suggested to be the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose role in brain development and function has been very well-documented (Binder and Scharfman, 2004) and which function has been associated with TH levels in the brain (Gilbert and Lasley, 2013). Several studies have shown that TH can regulate BDNF expression in the brain (Koibuchi et al., 1999; Koibuchi and Chin, 2000; Sui and Li, 2010), with the subsequent neurodevelopmental consequences.

In view of the above evidence, it has been shown that the thyroid insufficiency (lower TH levels) results in reduction of BDNF levels (mRNA or protein) in the developmental brain.

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help
Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

The importance of thyroid hormones (TH) in brain development has been recognised and investigated for many decades (Bernal, 2011). Several human studies have shown that low levels of circulating maternal TH, even in the modest degree, can lead to neurophysiological deficits in the offspring, including learning and memory deficits, or even cretinism in most severe cases (Zoeller and Rovet, 2004; Henrichs et al., 2010). The levels of serum TH at birth are not always informative, as most of the neurological deficits are present despite the normal thyroid status of the newborn. That means that the cause of these impairments is rooted in the early stages of the neuronal development during the gestational period. The nature and the temporal occurrence of these defects suggest that TH may exert their effects through the neurotrophins, as they are the main regulators of neuronal system development (Lu and Figurov, 1997). Among them, BDNF represents the prime candidate because of its critical role in CNS development and its ability to regulate synaptic transmission, dendritic structure and synaptic plasticity in adulthood (Binder and Scharfman, 2004). Additionally, hippocampus and neocortex are two of the regions characterized by the highest BDNF expression (Kawamoto et al., 1996), and are also key brain areas for learning and memory functions. Indeed, it has been shown that the thyroid insufficiency (lower TH levels) results in reduction of BDNF levels (mRNA or protein) in the developing brain, and the most likely affected brain regions are the hippocampus and cortex (Koromilas et al., 2010, Shafiee et al., 2016).  The hippocampus direct and indirect interactions with the THs provide crucial information on the neurobiological basis of the hypothyroidism-induced mental retardation and neurobehavioral dysfunction. TH deficiency during the foetal and/or the neonatal period produces deleterious effects for neural growth and development (such as reduced synaptic connectivity, delayed myelination, disturbed neuronal migration, deranged axonal projections, decreased synaptogenesis and alterations in neurotransmitters' levels), possibly through decreased BDNF levels (Koromilas et al., 2010; Shafiee et al., 2016).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

Hypothyroidism (i.e., induced by chemicals known to inhibit TPO or NIS, or by thyroidectomy, leading to low TH serum levels) is generally associated with lower levels of BDNF in brain tissues. As described in Conceição et al., 2016, thyroidectomized adult rats, apart from showing reduced TH levels, also presented reduced hippocampal gene expression of MCT8, TRα1, DIO2 and BDNF, which support a link between hippocampal hypothyroidism and reduced BDNF levels.

However, despite the fact that many in vivo studies have shown a correlation between hypothyroidism and BDNF expression in the brain, there are no studies simultaneously measuring the levels of both TH and BDNF in the brain. Therefore, no clear consensus can be reached by the overall evaluation of the existing data. There are numerous conflicting studies showing no significant change in BDNF mRNA or protein levels under hypothyroid conditions (Alvarez-Dolado et al., 1994; Bastian et al., 2010; 2012; Royland et al., 2008; Lasley and Gilbert, 2011).However, the results of these studies cannot exclude the possibility of temporal- or region-specific decreased BDNF effects as a consequence of foetal hypothyroidism. A transient TH-dependent BDNF reduction in early postnatal life can be followed by a period of normal BDNF levels or, on the contrary, normal BDNF expression in the early developmental stages is not predictive of equally normal BDNF expression throughout development. Moreover, significant differences in study design, the assessed brain regions, the age and the method of assessment in the existing studies, further complicate result interpretation.

- In Alvarez-Dolado et al. 1994, hypothyroid rats showed decreased trk (BDNF receptor) mRNA levels in the striatum on PND 5, PND 15 and in adults, increase of the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75LNGFR mRNA in hypothyroid cerebellum on PND 5 and PND 15, decrease of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of hypothyroid rats on neonatal hypothyroid rats on PND 15 and also after adult-onset hypothyroidism, whilst the relatively high expression of the two BDNF mRNAs did not change in any brain area.

- Bastian et al. (2010) assessed the effects Cu and Fe deficiencies on circulating and brain TH levels during development in pregnant rat dams rendered Cu deficient (CuD), Fe deficient (FeD), or TH deficient (by PTU treatment) from early gestation through weaning. Serum T4 and T3, and brain T3 levels were subsequently measured in PND 12 pups. Despite the remarkable decrease of serum TH and brain T3 induced by PTU treatment (and also by CuD and FeD), no significant changes of Bdnf IV mRNA levels were found. Authors commented that 'one explanation for this discrepancy is that many of the previous studies were performed using discrete brain regions, whereas this study was performed on whole-brain RNA'. Along the same line, in a follow up study, Bastian et al. (2012) could not find statistically significant reductions of Bdnf IV, Bdnf VI, and total Bdnf mRNA levels in hippocampus or cerebral cortex of Fe and TH deficient pups.

- Royland et al. (2008) assessed the effects of a PTU (TPO inhibitor) administration to pregnant rats from gestational day 6 until sacrifice of pups prior to weaning. However, PTU treatment did not change the expression of Bdnf at the mRNA level.

- In Lasley and Gilbert, 2011 study, different concentrations of PTU were administered to rat pregnant dams from gestational day 6 until weaning of the pups. Pups were sacrificed on PND 14, PND 21 and PND 100, analysis of TH serum levels was performed, along with analysis of hippocampal, cortical, and cerebellar levels of BDNF protein. While PTU caused a strong decrease of TH serum levels, no differences in BDNF protein were detected in the pre-weanling animals as a function of PTU exposure. On the contrary, dose-dependent decrease of BDNF levels emerged in adult males as a consequence of prenatal exposure despite the return to control TH levels. These findings reflect the potential for delayed impact of even modest TH reductions during critical periods of brain development on BDNF, a protein important for normal synaptic formation, as commented by the authors of this study.

It should also be considered that in severe models of TH deficiency, BDNF responsivity to TH is regulated in a promoter-, age-, and brain region-specific fashion (as described by Anderson and Mariash, 2002), and even modest differences of these parameters in study design may explain inconsistencies in study results.

The absence of significant changes in BDNF levels in the above cited studies could be also due to different sensitivity of analythical tools, experimental design and statistical processing of the results.

While PTU (TPO inhibitor) has been shown to decrease serum TH levels and brain BDNF protein levels and mRNA expression in offspring born from PTU-treated rat dams (Shafiee et al. 2016; Chakraborty et al., 2012; Gilbert et al. 2016), in Cortés et al., 2012 study, treatment of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with PTU induced an increase in the amount of BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus, while the content of TrkB, the receptor for BDNF, resulted reduced at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of the CA3 region compared with controls. Treated rats presented also thinner PSD than control rats, and a reduced content of NMDAr subunits (NR1 and NR2A/B subunits) at the PSD in hypothyroid animals. While these data indicate differential effects elicited by PTU (i.e., TPO inhibition) on BDNF expression/regulation comparing the adult vs foetal brain, downregulation of TrkB receptors still leads to decrease signalling pathways regulated by BDNF.

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help
Time-scale
This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help
Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

The connection between TH levels and BDNF expression has been studied only in rodent models up to date (see above studies).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Alvarez-Dolado M, Iglesias T, Rodrıguez-Pena A, Bernal J, Munoz A. (1994). Expression of neurotrophins and the trk family of neurotrophin receptors in normal and hypothyroid rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 27:249–257.

Abedelhaffez AS, Hassan A (2013). Brain derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress index in pups with developmental hypothyroidism: neuroprotective effects of selenium. Acta Physiol Hung. Jun;100(2):197-210.

Anderson GW, Mariash CN. 2002. Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone-regulated behavior. In: Pfaff DW, Arnold AP, Etgen AM, Fahrbach SE, Rubin RT, editors. , eds. Hormones, brain and behavior. San Diego: Academic Press; 539–566.

Blanco J, Mulero M, Heredia L, Pujol A, Domingo JL, Sánchez DJ (2013). Perinatal exposure to BDE-99 causes learning disorders and decreases serum thyroid hormone levels and BDNF gene expression in hippocampus in rat offspring. Toxicology. Jun 7;308:122-8.

Bastian TW, Anderson JA, Fretham SJ, Prohaska JR, Georgieff MK, Anderson GW. (2012). Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency reduces thyroid hormone-responsive gene mRNA levels in the neonatal rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Endocrinology 153: 5668–5680.

Bastian TW, Prohaska JR, Georgieff MK, Anderson GW. (2010). Perinatal iron and copper deficiencies alter neonatal rat circulating and brain thyroid hormone concentrations. Endocrinology 151:4055–4065.

Bernal J. (2011). Thyroid hormone transport in developing brain. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diab Obes 18:295–299.

Binder DK, Scharfman HE. (2004). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Growth Factors. 22(3):123–131

Chakraborty G, Magagna-Poveda A, Parratt C, Umans JG, MacLusky NJ, Scharfman HE. (2012). Reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neonatal rats after prenatal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU). Endocrinology 153:1311–1316.

Cortés C, Eugenin E, Aliaga E, Carreño LJ, Bueno SM, Gonzalez PA, Gayol S, Naranjo D, Noches V, Marassi MP, Rosenthal D, Jadue C, Ibarra P, Keitel C, Wohllk N, Court F, Kalergis AM, Riedel CA. (2012). Hypothyroidism in the adult rat causes incremental changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal and astrocyte apoptosis, gliosis, and deterioration of postsynaptic density. Thyroid. Sep;22(9):951-63.

da Conceição RR, Laureano-Melo R, Oliveira KC, de Carvalho Melo MC, Kasamatsu TS, de Barros Maciel RM, de Souza JS, Giannocco G. (2016). Antidepressant behavior in thyroidectomized Wistar rats is induced by hippocampal hypothyroidism. Physiol Behav. Apr 1;157:158-64.

Gilbert ME, Lasley SM. (2013). Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)? Neurosci 239: 253-270.

Gilbert ME, Rovet J, Chen Z, Koibuchi N. (2012). Developmental thyroid hormone disruption: prevalence, environmental contaminants and neurodevelopmental consequences. Neurotoxicology 33(4):842-852.

Gilbert ME, Sanchez-Huerta K, Wood C. (2016). Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency During Development Compromises Activity-Dependent Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats. Endocrinology, Feb;157(2):774-87

Henrichs J, Bongers-Schokking JJ, Schenk JJ, Ghassabian A, Schmidt HG, Visser TJ, Hooijkaas H, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Hofman A, Jaddoe VV, Visser W, Steegers EA, Verhulst FC, de Rijke YB, Tiemeier H. (2010). Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy and cognitive functioning in early childhood: the generation R study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4227–4234.

Kawahori K, Hashimoto K, Yuan X, Tsujimoto K, Hanzawa N, Hamaguchi M, Kase S, Fujita K, Tagawa K, Okazawa H, Nakajima Y, Shibusawa N, Yamada M, Ogawa Y (2018). Mild Maternal Hypothyroxinemia During Pregnancy Induces Persistent DNA Hypermethylation in the Hippocampal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Mouse Offspring. Thyroid. Mar;28(3):395-406.

Kawamoto Y, Nakamura S, Nakano S, Oka N, Akiguchi I, Kimura J. (1996). Immunohistochemical localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult rat brain. Neurosci 74(4):1209-1226.

Koibuchi N, Chin WW. (2000). Thyroid hormone action and brain development. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 11(4):123-128.

Koibuchi N, Yamaoka S, Chin WW. (2001). Effect of altered thyroid status on neurotrophin gene expression during postnatal development of the mouse cerebellum. Thyroid 11:205–210.

Koibuchi N, Fukuda H, Chin WW. (1999). Promoter-specific regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene by thyroid hormone in the developing rat cerebellum. Endocrinol 140: 3955–3961.

Koromilas C1, Liapi C, Schulpis KH, Kalafatakis K, Zarros A, Tsakiris S. (2010). Structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus due to hypothyroidism. Metab Brain Dis 25(3):339-54.

Lasley SM, Gilbert ME. (2011). Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency reduces expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adults but not in neonates. Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:464–472.

Liu D, Teng W, Shan Z, Yu X, Gao Y, Wang S, Fan C, Wang H, Zhang H. (2010). The effect of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy on brain development in rat offspring. Thyroid 20:909–915.

Lu B, Figurov A. (1997). Role of neurotrophins in synapse development and plasticity. Rev Neurosci 8:1–12.

Mokhtari T, Akbari M, Malek F, Kashani IR, Rastegar T, Noorbakhsh F, Ghazi-Khansari M, Attari F, Hassanzadeh G (2017). Improvement of memory and learning by intracerebroventricular microinjection of T3 in rat model of ischemic brain stroke mediated by upregulation of BDNF and GDNF in CA1 hippocampal region. Daru. Feb 15;25(1):4.

Morte B, Diez D, Auso E, Belinchon MM, Gil-Ibanez P, Grijota-Martinez C, Navarro D, de Escobar GM, Berbel P, Bernal J (2010a) Thyroid hormone regulation of gene expression in the developing rat fetal cerebral cortex: prominent role of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV pathway. Endocrinology 151:810-820.

Neveu I, Arenas E. (1996.) Neurotrophins promote the survival and development of neurons in the cerebellum of hypothyroid rats in vivo. J Cell Biol 133:631–646.

Oh JD, Butcher LL, Woolf NJ (1991). Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholingergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor. Devl Brain Res  59:133–142.

Pathak A, Sinha RA, Mohan V, Mitra K, Godbole MM. 2011. Maternal thyroid hormone before the onset of fetal thyroid function regulates reelin and downstream signaling cascade affecting neocortical neuronal migration. Cerebral cortex. Jan;21:11-21.

Remaud S, Gothié JD, Morvan-Dubois G, Demeneix BA (2014). Thyroid hrmone signaling and adult neurogenesis in mammals. Front. Endocrinol., 5, p. 40

Royland JE, Parker JS, Gilbert ME. (2008). A genomic analysis of subclinical hypothyroidism in hippocampus and neocortex of the developing rat brain. J Neuroendocrinol 20:1319–1338.

Schwartz HL, Strait KA, Ling NC, Oppenheimer JH (1992). Quantitation of rat-tissue thyroid-hormone binding-receptor isoforms by immunoprecipitation of nuclear triiodothyronine binding-capacity. J. Biol. Chem., 267 (17), pp. 11794–11799.

Sabbaghziarani F, Mortezaee K, Akbari M, Kashani IR, Soleimani M, Hassanzadeh G, Zendedel A (2017). Stimulation of neurotrophic factors and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines by exogenous application of triiodothyronine in the rat model of ischemic stroke. Cell Biochem Funct. Jan;35(1):50-55.

Shafiee SM, Vafaei AA, Rashidy-Pour A (2016). Effects of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF in rat pups: beneficial effects of exercise. Neuroscience, 329, pp. 151-161.

Shi R, Xie X, Gao Y, Zhou YJ, Zhang Y, Chen LM, Tian Y (2017). [The effects of prenatal exposure to brominated diphenyl ethers-209 to the influence of male offspring rats hippocampus BDNF potein expression and its mechanism of action]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. Sep 20;35(9):652-655.

Shieh PB, Hu SC, Bobb K, Timmusk T, Ghosh A (1998). Identification of a signaling pathway involved in calcium regulation of BDNF expression. Neuron  20:727–740

Sinha RA, Pathak A, Kumar A, Tiwari M, Shrivastava A, Godbole MM. (2009). Enhanced neuronal loss under perinatal hypothyroidism involves impaired neurotrophic signaling and increased proteolysis of p75(NTR). Mol Cell Neurosci 40:354–364.

Sui L, Li BM. (2010). Effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on regulation of reelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in rat hippocampus: role of DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Steroids 75:988–997.

Sui L, Ren WW, Li BM (2010). Administration of thyroid hormone increases reelin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat hippocampus in vivo. Brain Res. Feb 8;1313:9-24.

Thompson CC, Potter GB. (2000). Thyroid hormone action in neural development. Cereb Cortex. Oct;10(10):939-45.

Wang S, Teng W, Gao Y, Fan C, Zhang H, Shan Z. (2012). Early levothyroxine treatment on maternal subclinical hypothyroidism improves spatial learning of offspring in rats. J Neuroendocrinol 24:841–848.

Westerholz S, deLima AD, Voigt T. (2010). Regulation of early spontaneous network activity and GABAergic neurons development by thyroid hormone. Neurosci 168:573–589.

Wu Y, Beland FA1, Fang JL. (2016). Effect of triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, and bisphenol A on the iodide uptake, thyroid peroxidase activity, and expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Toxicol In Vitro. Apr;32:310-9.

Zoeller RT, Rovet J. (2004). Timing of thyroid hormone action in the developing brain: clinical observations and experimental findings. J Neuroendocrinol 16:809–818.