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Formation, Pro-mutagenic DNA Adducts leads to Clonal Expansion/Cell Proliferation, to form Altered Hepatic Foci (AHF)
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|AFB1: Mutagenic Mode-of-Action leading to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)||non-adjacent||High||High||Agnes Aggy (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Formation of the pro-mutagenic DNA adduct, N7-AFB1-G (or its conversion product, N7-AFB1-FAPy) is the first step in the initiation of a process that may finish in development of altered
Evidence Collection Strategy
Evidence Supporting this KER
While there is no specific information for AFB1, it is widely recognized that pro-mutagenic adducts formed by AFB1 metabolites may be repaired/removed or may result in mutations. The fidelity of the repair processes and probability of mis-repair determine whether mutations arise in tumor-critical genes. The altered hepatic foci (AHF) are believed to result from mutations expressed in cells that demonstrate reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation, likely linked to the mutations. (Alekseyev et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2003; Giri et al., 2002; Bailey et al., 1996; Lin et al., 2014).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
The direct KER relationships between adducts and mutations (MIE→KE#2) and from mutations to AHF (KE#2→KE#3) determine this indirect relationship. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data to support quantification of a relationship between adducts and AHF; neither to address an AFB1 dose-response for both KEs.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
The universality of both DNA adducts and AHF in the pathogenesis of liver cancer suggests that the wide taxonomic applicability noted elsewhere in this AOP is likely true for this KER.
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11. Bannasch P, Benner U, Enzmann H, Hacker HJ (1985) Tigroid cell foci and neoplastic nodules in the liver of rats treated with a single dose of aflatoxin B1. Carcinogenesis 6: 1641-1648.
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