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Relationship: 983

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Increase, Vascular Resistance leads to Hypertension

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Peptide Oxidation Leading to Hypertension adjacent Moderate Low Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Not under active development Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus Low NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
Adults High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Hypertension is characterized partly by elevated systemic vascular resistance which is caused by alterations to vascular tone (towards vasoconstriction) over time (Lee and Griendling, 2008).  As blood vessels constrict, the available volume in the vessel lumen for blood flow is restricted, resulting in elevated blood pressure.

Note : The role of the heart in the maintenace (and change) of blood pressure over time is not part of this AOP, however it is of critical importance for the development of hypertension.

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

It is well-established that increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR), increased vascular stiffness and increased vascular reactivity contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension (Foëx and Sear, 2004; Mayet and Hughes, 2003; Brandes et al., 2014); thus biological plausibility is strong for increased SVR leading to hypertension. This is observed in patients with hypertension (Chan et al., 2016).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

One study showed that infusion of L-NMMA (6 mg/kg) resulted in increased SVR and only a modest increase in blood pressure.  Changes in diastolic blood pressure were observed to be more pronounced in healthy men, than systolic blood pressure (Brett et al., 1998), and infusion of L-arginine (an eNOS substrate) had no significant effect.

As mentioned above, other AOPs are necessary to capture understanding and assess the evidence surrounding the roles of the heart, kidney and nervous system in order to get the full picture of the linkage between chronic changes in SVR and hypertension.

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

Studies supporting this key event relationship were performed in humans and rats.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Brandes, R.P. (2014). Endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Hypertension 64, 924–928.

Brett, S.E., Cockcroft, J.R., Mant, T.G., Ritter, J.M., and Chowienczyk, P.J. (1998). Haemodynamic effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and of L-arginine at rest and during exercise. J. Hypertens. 16, 429–435.

Chan, S.S., Tse, M.M., Chan, C.P., Tai, M.C., Graham, C.A., and Rainer, T.H. (2016). Haemodynamic changes in emergency department patients with poorly controlled hypertension. Hong Kong Med. J. Xianggang Yi Xue Za Zhi Hong Kong Acad. Med. 22, 116–123.

Foëx, P., and Sear, J.W. (2004). Hypertension: pathophysiology and treatment. Contin. Educ. Anaesth. Crit. Care Pain 4, 71–75.

Haynes, W.G., Noon, J.P., Walker, B.R., and Webb, D.J. (1993). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis increases blood pressure in healthy humans. J. Hypertens. 11, 1375–1380.

Lee, M.Y., and Griendling, K.K. (2008). Redox signaling, vascular function, and hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1045–1059.

Mayet, J., and Hughes, A. (2003). Cardiac and vascular pathophysiology in hypertension. Heart Br. Card. Soc. 89, 1104–1109.

McVeigh, G.E., Allen, P.B., Morgan, D.R., Hanratty, C.G., and Silke, B. (2001). Nitric oxide modulation of blood vessel tone identified by arterial waveform analysis. Clin. Sci. Lond. Engl. 1979 100, 387–393.

Nakmareong, S., Kukongviriyapan, U., Pakdeechote, P., Kukongviriyapan, V., Kongyingyoes, B., Donpunha, W., Prachaney, P., and Phisalaphong, C. (2012). Tetrahydrocurcumin alleviates hypertension, aortic stiffening and oxidative stress in rats with nitric oxide deficiency. Hypertens. Res. Off. J. Jpn. Soc. Hypertens. 35, 418–425.

Silva, B.R., Pernomian, L., and Bendhack, L.M. (2012). Contribution of oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. Front. Physiol. 3, 441.

Stamler, J.S., Loh, E., Roddy, M.A., Currie, K.E., and Creager, M.A. (1994). Nitric oxide regulates basal systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance in healthy humans. Circulation 89, 2035–2040.

Wilkinson, I.B., MacCallum, H., Cockcroft, J.R., and Webb, D.J. (2002). Inhibition of basal nitric oxide synthesis increases aortic augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in vivo. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 53, 189–192.