Stressor: 224

Title

To create a new stressor, from the Listing Stressors page at https://aopwiki.org/stressors click ‘New stressor.’ This will bring you to a page entitled “New Stressor” where a stressor title can be entered. Click ‘Create stressor’ to create a new Stressor page listing the stressor title at the top. More help

nanoparticles

Stressor Overview

The stressor field is a structured data field that can be used to annotate an AOP with standardised terms identifying stressors known to trigger the MIE/AOP. Most often these are chemical names selected from established chemical ontologies. However, depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). It can also include non-chemical stressors such as genetic or environmental factors. More help

AOPs Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the AOPs associated with this Stressor. More help

Events Including This Stressor

This table is automatically generated and lists the Key Events associated with this Stressor. More help

Chemical Table

The Chemical Table lists chemicals associated with a stressor. This table contains information about the User’s term for a chemical, the DTXID, Preferred name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey.To add a chemical associated with a particular stressor, next to the Chemical Table click ‘Add chemical.’ This will redirect you to a page entitled “New Stressor Chemical.’ The dialog box can be used to search for chemical by name, CAS number, JChem InChIKey, and Indigo InChIKey. Searching by these fields will bring forward a drop down list of existing stressor chemicals formatted as  Preferred name, “CAS- preferred name,” “JChem InChIKey – preferred name,” or “Indigo InChIKey- preferred name,” depending on by which field you perform the search. It may take several moments for the drop down list to display. Select an entity from the drop down list and click ‘Add chemical.’ This will return you to the Stressor Page, where the new record should be in the ‘Chemical Table’ on the page.To remove a chemical associated with a particular stressor, in the Chemical Table next to the chemical you wish to delete, click ‘Remove’ and then click 'OK.' The chemical should no longer be visible in the Chemical table. More help

AOP Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the AOPs with this associated stressor as well as the evidence term and evidence text from this AOP Stressor. More help

Event Evidence

This table is automatically generated and includes the Events with this associated stressor as well as the evidence text from this Event Stressor. More help
Endocytotic lysosomal uptake

There is no evidence text for this event.

Bradykinin system, hyperactivated

There is no evidence text for this event.

Fibrinolysis, decreased

There is no evidence text for this event.

Inhibition of lung surfactant function

There is no evidence text for this event.

Increase, Oxidative Stress

Huerta-García et al. (2014) conducted a study of the effects of titanium nanoparticles on human and rat brain cells. They found that both the human and rat cells showed time-dependant increases in ROS when treated with titanium nanoparticles for 2 to 6 hours (Huerta-García et al., 2014). They also found elevated lipid peroxidation that was induced by the titanium nanoparticle treatment of human and rat cell lines in a time-dependant manner (Huerta-García et al., 2014).

Liu et al. (2010) also investigated the effects of titanium nanoparticles, however they conducted their trials on rat kidney cells. They found that ROS production was significantly increased in a dose dependant manner when treated with 10 to 100 μg/mL of titanium nanoparticles (Liu et al., 2010).

Pan et al. (2009) treated human cervix carcinoma cells with gold nanoparticles (Au1.4MS) and found that intracellular ROS content in the treated cells increased in a time-dependant manner when treated with 100 μM for 6 to 48 hours. They also compared the treatment with Au1.4MS gold nanoparticles to treatment with Au15MS treatment, which are another size of gold nanoparticle (Pan et al., 2009). The Au15MS nanoparticles were much less toxic than the Au1.4MS gold nanoparticles, even when the Au15MS nanoparticles were applied at a concentration of 1000 μM (Pan et al., 2009). When investigating further markers of oxidative stress, Pan et al. (2009) found that GSH content was greatly decreased in cells treated with gold nanoparticles.

Ferreira et al. (2015) also studied the effects of gold nanoparticles. They exposed rat kidneys to GNPs-10 (10 nm particles) and GNPs-30 (30 nm particles), and found that lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content in the rat kidneys treated with GNPs-30 and GNPs-10, respectively, were significantly elevated.

Oxidative Stress

Huerta-García et al. (2014) conducted a study of the effects of titanium nanoparticles on human and rat brain cells. They found that both the human and rat cells showed time-dependant increases in ROS when treated with titanium nanoparticles for 2 to 6 hours (Huerta-García et al., 2014). They also found elevated lipid peroxidation that was induced by the titanium nanoparticle treatment of human and rat cell lines in a time-dependant manner (Huerta-García et al., 2014).

Liu et al. (2010) also investigated the effects of titanium nanoparticles, however they conducted their trials on rat kidney cells. They found that ROS production was significantly increased in a dose dependant manner when treated with 10 to 100 μg/mL of titanium nanoparticles (Liu et al., 2010).

Pan et al. (2009) treated human cervix carcinoma cells with gold nanoparticles (Au1.4MS) and found that intracellular ROS content in the treated cells increased in a time-dependant manner when treated with 100 μM for 6 to 48 hours. They also compared the treatment with Au1.4MS gold nanoparticles to treatment with Au15MS treatment, which are another size of gold nanoparticle (Pan et al., 2009). The Au15MS nanoparticles were much less toxic than the Au1.4MS gold nanoparticles, even when the Au15MS nanoparticles were applied at a concentration of 1000 μM (Pan et al., 2009). When investigating further markers of oxidative stress, Pan et al. (2009) found that GSH content was greatly decreased in cells treated with gold nanoparticles.

Ferreira et al. (2015) also studied the effects of gold nanoparticles. They exposed rat kidneys to GNPs-10 (10 nm particles) and GNPs-30 (30 nm particles), and found that lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content in the rat kidneys treated with GNPs-30 and GNPs-10, respectively, were significantly elevated.

Stressor Info

Text sections under this subheading include the Chemical/Category Description and Characterization of Exposure. More help
Chemical/Category Description
To edit the Chemical/Category Description” section, on a KER page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Chemical/Category Description” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Chemical/Category Description”  section on the page. More help
Characterization of Exposure
To edit the “Characterization of Exposure” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “Characterization of Exposure”  section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “Characterization of Exposure” section on the page. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this Stressor description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015).To edit the “References” section, on a Stressor page, in the upper right hand menu, click ‘Edit.’ This brings you to a page entitled, “Editing Stressor.”  Scroll down to the “References” section, where a text entry box allows you to submit text. Click ‘Update’ to save your changes and return to the Stressor page.  The new text should appear under the “References” section on the page. More help