This AOP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Impaired IL-1R1 signaling leading to increased susceptibility to infection
Point of Contact
- Yutaka Kimura
- Cataia Ives
|Author status||OECD status||OECD project||SAAOP status|
|Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review||1.48||Included in OECD Work Plan|
This AOP was last modified on April 05, 2021 18:16
|Impaired IL-1R1 signaling||December 21, 2020 21:49|
|Suppression of T cell activation||November 18, 2019 01:08|
|Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)||March 12, 2020 22:10|
|Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection||March 12, 2020 22:32|
|Impaired IL-1R1 signaling leads to Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)||November 23, 2020 04:15|
|Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) leads to Suppression of T cell activation||March 13, 2020 03:08|
|Suppression of T cell activation leads to Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection||March 13, 2020 03:21|
|IL-1 receptor antagonist（IL-1Ra）(Anakinra)||June 01, 2019 00:37|
|anti-IL-1b antibody (Canakinumab)||June 01, 2019 00:38|
|soluble IL-1R (Rilonacept)||June 01, 2019 00:38|
|anti-IL-1b antibody (Gevokizumab)||December 15, 2019 20:41|
|Dexamethasone||June 01, 2019 00:56|
|minocycline||June 01, 2019 00:32|
|Belnacasan (VX-765)||December 21, 2020 19:49|
|Pralnacasan (VX-740, HMR3480)||December 21, 2020 19:57|
|cinnamic aldehyde||June 01, 2019 00:37|
The pleiotropic cytokine IL-1 mediates its biological functions via association with the signaling receptor IL-1R1. These may include initiation of innate immunity as well as acquired immunity, which are essential for assistance of host defense against infection. The trimeric complex consists of IL-1, IL-1R1 and IL-1R3 (a coreceptor, formerly IL-1R accessory protein) allows for the approximation of the Toll-IL-1-Receptor (TIR) domains of each receptor chain. MyD88 then binds to the TIR domains. The binding of MyD88 triggers a cascade of kinases that produce a strong pro-inflammatory signal leading to activation of NF-κB. The activation of NF-κB plays a principal role in the immunological function of IL-1. Namely, it stimulates innate immunity such as activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. It also stimulates T cells via activated dendritic function or directly. The activation of T cells is crucial for B cell proliferation and their antibody production. The cooperation by T cells and B cells constitutes a main part of host defense against infection. Therefore, the impaired IL-1R1 signaling either by the decreased IL-1 production or the inhibition of IL-1β binding to IL-1R1 by IL-1 receptor antagonist（IL-1Ra）or anti-IL-1β antibody) results in the blockade of the effects of the pleiotropic cytokine IL-1β leading to increased susceptibility to infection.
In this AOP, we selected the impaired IL-1R signaling as a molecular initiating event (MIE), and suppression of NF-κB, suppression of T cell activation, and increased susceptibility to infection as key events (KE).
The pleiotropic cytokine IL-1 mediates its biological functions via association with the signaling receptor IL-1R1. These may include initiation of innate immunity and assistance of host defense against infection, and sometimes, mediation of autoinflammatory, such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease and familial Mediterranean fever. The trimeric complex consists of IL-1, IL-1R1 and IL-1R3 (a coreceptor, formerly IL-1R accessory protein) allows for the approximation of the Toll-IL-1-Receptor (TIR) domains of each receptor chain. MyD88 then binds to the TIR domains. The binding of MyD88 triggers a cascade of kinases that produce a strong pro-inflammatory signal leading to activation of NF-κB and fundamental inflammatory responses such as the induction of cyclooxygenase type 2, production of multiple cytokines and chemokines, increased expression of adhesion molecules, or synthesis of nitric oxide. (Dinarello, 2018; Weber et al., 2010a, b).
Molecules like nuclear or mitochondrial DNA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), uridine triphosphate (UTP), uric acid and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are classified as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are secreted or produced upon cellular injury or death and induce sterile inflammation. On the other hand, bacterial products like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycans, lipoprotein flagellins, bacterial RNA and DNA are some of the well-characterized pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). These DAMPs and PAMPs with a few exceptions bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptor (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors (NLRs). Proinflammatory mediators such as DAMPs, PAMPs, and various inflammatory cytokines or mediators including IL-1β itself activate innate immune mechanisms in the host leading to IL-1b production (Handa et al., 2016; Newton and Dixit, 2012; Yang et al., 2017). Besides transcriptional regulation and posttranscriptional level by RNA-binding proteins, pro-IL-1b protein requires proteolytic cleavage by active caspase-1 as the effector component of stimulation-induced multi-protein inflammasomes to acquire functional activity. Altogether, these different layers of regulation allow to fine tune IL-1b production under different pathophysiological conditions (Bent et al., 2018).
Therefore, the inhibition of various targets in different layers from the stimulation of PRPs or the receptors of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-1, IL-18, or TNFa, to the activation of NF-κB or the inhibition of posttranscriptional regulation of pro-IL-1b cause impaired IL-1R1 signaling. In addition, since IL-1 also mediates autoinflammatory syndromes, such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease and familial Mediterranean fever, several inhibitors against IL-1R1 have been developed. They are IL-1 receptor antagonist（IL-1Ra）, anakinumab (anti-IL-1β antibody) and rilonacept (soluble IL-1R). Several reports described that the administration of these drugs led to increased susceptibility to infection(De Benedetti et al., 2018; Fleischmann et al., 2003; Genovese et al., 2004; Imagawa et al., 2013; Kullenberg et al., 2016; Lachmann et al., 2009; Lequerre et al., 2008; Migkos et al., 2015; Schlesinger et al., 2012; Yokota et al., 2017). In addition to these human data, the experiments using knockout mice revealed that the lack of IL-1 signaling led to bacterial, tuberculosis or viral infection(Guler et al., 2011; Horino et al., 2009; Juffermans et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2017; Yamada et al., 2000).
In addition to these human data, the experiments using knockout mice revealed that the lack of IL-1 signaling led to bacterial, tuberculosis or viral infection. (Guler et al., 2011; Horino et al., 2009; Juffermans et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2017; Yamada et al., 2000).
Summary of the AOP
Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
Key Events (KE)
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
|Sequence||Type||Event ID||Title||Short name|
|1||MIE||1700||Impaired IL-1R1 signaling||Impaired IL-1R1 signaling|
|2||KE||202||Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)||Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)|
|3||KE||1702||Suppression of T cell activation||Suppression of T cell activation|
|4||AO||986||Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection||Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection|
Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)
|Impaired IL-1R1 signaling leads to Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) leads to Suppression of T cell activation||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Suppression of T cell activation leads to Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection||adjacent||High||Not Specified|
Life Stage Applicability
|Not Otherwise Specified||High|
Overall Assessment of the AOP
Domain of Applicability
Although sex differences in immune responses are well known (Klein and Flanagan, 2016), there is no reports regarding the sex difference in IL-1 production, IL-1 function or susceptibility to infection as adverse effect of IL-1 blocking agent. Again, age-dependent difference in IL-1 signaling is not known.
The IL1B gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and frog (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene/481), and the Myd88 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, rat, chicken, zebrafish, mosquito, and frog (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/homologene?Db=homologene&Cmd=Retrieve&list_uids=1849).
The NFKB1 gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, chicken, and frog.
275 organisms have orthologs with human gene NFKB1.
The RELB gene is conserved in chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and frog.
216 organisms have orthologs with human gene RELB.
These data suggest that the proposed AOP regarding inhibition of IL-1 signaling is not dependent on life stage, sex, age or species.
Essentiality of the Key Events
The experiments using knockout mice revealed that the deficiency of IL-1 signaling led to bacterial, tuberculosis or viral infection (Guler et al., 2011; Horino et al., 2009; Juffermans et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2017; Yamada et al., 2000).
IL-1 receptor antagonist（IL-1Ra）was purified in 1990, and the cDNA reported that same year. IL-1Ra binds IL-1R but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction (Dripps et al., 1991). Recombinant IL-1Ra (generic anakinra) is fully active in blocking the IL-1R1, and therefore, the activities of IL-1α and IL-1β. Anakinra is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). Since its introduction in 2002 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, anakinra has had a remarkable record of safety. However, Fleischmann et al. (Fleischmann et al., 2003) reported that serious infectious episodes were observed more frequently in the anakinra group (2.1% versus 0.4% in the placebo group) and other authors reported the increased susceptibility to bacterial or tuberculosis infection (Genovese et al., 2004; Kullenberg et al., 2016; Lequerre et al., 2008; Migkos et al., 2015). Two IL-1 signaling antagonists, canakinumab (anti-IL-1b antibody) and rilonacept (soluble IL-1R) had been reported to increase susceptibility to infection (De Benedetti et al., 2018; Imagawa et al., 2013; Lachmann et al., 2009; Schlesinger et al., 2012).
In a similar way, defect of MyD88 signaling caused by knockout of mice gene or deficiency in human patient leads to the increased susceptibility to bacterial or tuberculosis infection (Fremond et al., 2004; Picard et al., 2010; Scanga et al., 2004; von Bernuth et al., 2008). Although MyD88 is also known to be involved in TLR signaling pathway, several reports suggested that MyD88-dependent response was IL-1 receptor-mediated but not TLR-mediated. These data suggest to essentiality of IL-1-MyD88 signaling pathway in host defense against infection.
Mice lacking NF-kB p50 are unable effectively to clear L. monocytogenes and are more susceptible to infection with S. peumoniae (Sha et al., 1995).
The recent review of IL-1 pathway by Weber et al. has clearly described the intracellular signaling event from the binding of IL-1a or IL-1b to IL-1R to the activation of NF-kB through the assemble of MyD88 to the trimelic complex composed of IL-1, IL-R1, and IL-1RacP. The sequentiality and essentiality of each signaling molecule have been demonstrated by mice lacking relevant molecules (Weber et al., 2010a, b).
There were several reports that described that administration of IL-1R antagonist or neutralizing antibody led to the suppression of downstream phenomena, which included internalization of IL-1 (Dripps et al., 1991), production of PGE2 (Hannum et al., 1990; Seckinger et al., 1990b), IL-6 (Goh et al., 2014), and T cell proliferation (Seckinger et al., 1990a).
Inhibition of IL-1 binding to IL-1 receptor leads to Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)
IL-1α and IL-1β independently bind the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1), which is ubiquitously expressed. The IL-1R3 (formerly IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP)) serves as a co-receptor that is required for signal transduction of IL-1/IL-1RI complexes.
The initial step in IL-1 signal transduction is a ligand-induced conformational change in the first extracellular domain of the IL-1RI that facilitates recruitment of IL-1R3. the trimeric complex rapidly assembles two intracellular signaling proteins, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and interleukin-1 receptor–activated protein kinase (IRAK) 4. This is paralleled by the (auto)phosphorylation of IRAK4, which subsequently phosphorylates IRAK1 and IRAK2, and then this is followed by the recruitment and oligomerization of tumor necrosis factor–associated factor (TRAF) 6. Activation of NF-κB by IL-1 requires the activation of inhibitor of nuclear factor B (IκB) kinase 2 (IKK2). Activated IKK phosphorylates IκBα, which promotes its K48-linked polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. IκB destruction allows the release of p50 and p65 NF-κB subunits and their nuclear translocation, which is the central step in activation of NF-κB. Both NF-κBs bind to a conserved DNA motif that is found in numerous IL-1–responsive genes. (Weber et al., 2010a, b)
Inhibition, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) leads to Suppression of T cell activation
In T lineage cells, the temporal regulation of NF-kb controls the stepwise differentiation and antigen-dependent selection of conventional and specialized subsets of T cells in response to T cell receptor and costimulatory, cytokines and growth factor signals. Cytokines include cytokines produced from macrophage or monocyte such as IL-1b. (Gerondakis et al., 2014)
Suppression of T cell activation leads to Increase, Increased susceptibility to infection
First type immunity drives resistance to viruses and intracellular bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Mycobacteria spp., as well as to intracellular protozoan parasites such as Leishmania spp. The T helper 1 signature cytokine interferon-γ has a central role in triggering cytotoxic mechanisms including macrophage polarization towards an antimicrobial response associated with the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells to kill infected cells via the perforin and/or granzyme B-dependent lytic pathway or via the ligation of surface death receptors; and B cell activation towards the production of cytolytic antibodies that target infected cells for complement and Fc receptor-mediated cellular cytotoxicity.
Resistance to extracellular metazoan parasites and other large parasites is mediated and/or involves second type immunity. Pathogen neutralization is achieved via different mechanisms controlled by T 2 signature cytokines, including interleukin-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and by additional type 2 cytokines such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25 or IL-33, secreted by damaged cell. T 2 signature cytokines drive B cell activation towards the production of high-affinity pathogen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies that function via Fc-dependent mechanisms to trigger the activation of eosinophils, mast cells and basophils, expelling pathogens across epithelia.
T17 immunity confers resistance to extracellular bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium, Bordetella pertussis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and also to fungi such as Candida albicans, Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. Activation of T 17 cells by cognate T cell receptor (TCR–MHC class II interactions and activation of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) via engagement of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) by IL-1β secreted from damaged cells lead to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. T 17 immunopathology is driven to a large extent by products of neutrophil activation, such as ROS and elastase (reviewed by Soares et al. (Soares et al., 2017).
Based on these evidences, the insufficient T cell or B cell function causes impaired resistance to infection.
This table summarizes the empirical support obtained from the experiment using several inhibitor or gene targeting mice.
Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)
The impaired IL-1 signaling can lead to decreased host resistance to various infections. Therefore, the test guideline to detect chemicals that decrease IL-1 signaling is required to support regulatory decision-making. This AOP can promote the understanding of the usefulness of the test guideline.
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