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Key Event Title
Binding, Thiol/seleno-proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Oxidative stress and Developmental impairment in learning and memory||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
|Oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|During brain development||High|
Key Event Description
In the brain, thiol (SH)- and seleno-containing proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress are mainly located in mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of the different neural cell types (Comini, 2016; Hoppe et al. 2008; Barbosa et al. 2017; Zhu et al. 2017). The main SH-containing peptide involved in protection against oxidative stress is Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide acting as a cofactor for the enzyme peroxidase and thus serving as an indirect antioxidant donating the electrons necessary for its decomposition of H2O2. The seleno-containing proteins of interest are: (i) the Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) family, involved in detoxification of hydroperoxides; (ii) the Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) family, involved in the regeneration of reduced thioredoxin (Pillai et al., 2014; ), and the less studied SelH, K, S, R, W, and P selenoproteins (Pisoschi and Pop, 2015, Reeves and Hoffmann, 2009). Binding of chemicals to these proteins induces either their inactivation or favor their degradation (Farina et al. 2009; Zemolin et al. 2012). Of particular importance, the GSH/GPx and thioredoxin (Trx)/TrxR systems are the two main redox regulators of mammalian cells and the disruption of their activities can compromise cell viability (Ren et al. 2016).
How It Is Measured or Detected
- Binding of Hg to thiol groups was analyzed by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectometry (Wiederhold et al., 2010).
- The binding affinity of methylmercury by various selenium-containing lingands was investigated by proton magnetic resonance spectometry (Sugiura et al., 1978; Arnold et al., 1986).
- A methylene blue-mediated enzyme biosensor was developed for the detection of mercury-glutathione complex. The biosensor was the enzyme horseradish peroxidase. The binding site of HgCl2 with the enzyme was a cysteine residue-SH (Han et al., 2001).
- A photometric method to quantify GSH loss after reactio with organic electrophiles has also been reported (Böhme et al., 2009).
- Binding of mercuric chloride to GSH was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet (UV) detection, HPLC-inductively coupled mass spectometry and HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectometry (Qiao et al., 2017).
- Carvalho et al. (2011) determined the binding of MeHg or Hg2+ with purified Thioredoxin Reductase using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography was not applied because they have used a pure chemical system, i.e, without living cells.
- Mass spectra analysis allowed to measure the binding of mercury chloride and methylmercury to proteins of the mamallian thioredixin system, thioredoxin reductase (Trx) and thioredoxin (Trx), and of the glutaredoxin system, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutaredoxin (Grx) (Carvahlo et al., 2008)
- The methodology to detect acrylamide-cysteine adducts has been performed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (Martyniuk et al. 2013). In this paper the authors dected by using a shotgun proteomic approach a total of 15,243 peptides in ACR-exposed N27 cells. And from those 15,243 peptides, 103 peptides (from 100 different proteins) contained acrylamide-cysteine adducts.
Domain of Applicability
Due to the ubiquitous distribution of the SH-/ and seleno-proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress and inview of the strong affinity of MeHg and Hg2+ for thiolate and selenolate groups the binding of MeHg and Hg2+ to thiol and selenol groups is expected to occur in the living cells of all taxonomic groups found in the biosphere.The conservation of these effects across different vertebrate species indicates that thiol- and selenol-containing proteins (particularly, TrxR and GPx) can also be important targets of electrophilic forms of Hg(EpHg+ or MeHg and Hg2+) toxicity in fish and birds (Heinz, 1979; Carvalho et al. 2008b; Heinz et al. 2009; Xu et al.2012, 2016). The disruption of the Trx and GSH systems by MeHg and Hg2+have been demonstrated in zebra-sea breams (Branco et al. 2011; 2012a,b) and salmon (Salmo salar, Bernstssen et al. 2003). MeHg can also interfere with the Trx and GSH systems in zebrafish (Yang et al. 2007; Cambier et al. 2012).
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