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Event: 1636

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Increase, Chromosomal aberrations

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Increase, Chromosomal aberrations
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Oxidative DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations and mutations AdverseOutcome Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Deposition of energy leading to lung cancer KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Deposition of energy leading to cataracts KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Structural chromosomal aberrations describe the damage to chromosomes that results from breaks along the DNA and may lead to deletion, addition, or rearrangement of sections in the chromosome. Chromosomal aberrations can be divided in two major categories: chromatid-type or chromosome-type depending on whether one or both chromatids are involved, respectively. They can be further classified as rejoined or non-rejoined aberrations. Rejoined aberrations include translocations, insertions, dicentrics and rings, while unrejoined aberrations include acentric fragments and breaks (Savage, 1976). Some of these aberrations are stable (i.e., reciprocal translocations) and can persist for many years (Tucker and Preston, 1996). Others are unstable (i.e., dicentrics, acentric fragments) and decline at each cell division because of clonogenic inactivation (Boei et al., 1996). These events may be detectable after cell division and such damage to DNA is irreversible. Chromosomal aberrations are associated with  clonogenic inactivation and carcinogenicity (Mitelman, 1982).

Chromosomal aberrations (CA) refer to a missing, extra or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA. These DNA changes in the chromosome structure may be produced by different double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms (Obe et al., 2002).

There are 4 main types of CAs: deletions, duplications, translocations, and inversions. Deletions happen when a portion of the genetic material from a chromosome is lost. Terminal deletions occur when an end piece of the chromosome is cleaved. Interstitial deletions arise when a chromosome breaks in two separate locations and rejoins incorrectly, with the center piece being omitted. Duplications transpire when there is any addition or rearrangement of excess genetic material; types of duplications include transpositions, tandem duplications, reverse duplications, and displaced duplications (Griffiths et al., 2000). Translocations result from a section of one chromosome being transferred to a non-homologous chromosome (Bunting and Nussenzweig, 2013). When there is an exchange of segments on two non-homologous chromosomes, it is called a reciprocal translocation. Inversions occur in a single chromosome and involve both of the ends breaking and being ligated on the opposite ends, effectively inverting the DNA sequence.      

A fifth type of CA that can occur in the genome is the copy number variant (CNV). CNVs, which may comprise greater than 10% of the human genome (Shlien et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2016; Hastings et al., 2009),  are deletions or duplications that can vary in size from 50 base pairs (Arlt et al., 2012; Arlt et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2013) up into the megabase pair range (Arlt et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2015; Arlt et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2016). CNV regions are especially enriched in large genes and large active transcription units (Wilson et al., 2015), and are of particular concern when they cause deletions in tumour suppressor genes or duplications in oncogenes (Liu et al., 2013; Curtis et al., 2012). There are two types of CNVs: recurrent and non-recurrent. Recurrent CNVs are thought to be produced through a recombination process during meiosis known as non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) (Arlt et al., 2012; Hastings et al., 2009). These recurrent CNVs, also called germline CNVs, could be inherited and are thus common across different individuals (Shlien et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). Non-recurrent CNVs are believed to be produced in mitotic cells during the process of replication. Although the mechanism is not well studied, it has been suggested that stress during replication, in particular stalling replication forks, prompt microhomology-mediated mechanisms to overcome the replication stall, which often results in duplications or deletions. Two models that have been proposed to explain this mechanism include the Fork Stalling and Template Switching (FoSTeS) model, and the Microhomology-Mediated Break-Induced Replication (MMBIR) model (Arlt et al., 2012; Wilson et al., 2015; Lee et al., 2007; Hastings et al., 2009).

CAs can be classified according to whether the chromosome or chromatid is affected by the aberration. Chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) include chromosome-type breaks, ring chromosomes, marker chromosomes, and dicentric chromosomes; chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) refer to chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges (Bonassi et al., 2008; Hagmar et al., 2004). When cells are blocked at the cytokinesis step, When cells are blocked at the cytokinesis step, micronuclei (MN; small nucleus-like structures that contain a chromosome or a piece of a chromosome that was lost during mitosis) can appear in the cytoplasm of binucleated cells. These micronuclei are an indication of CAs and are often related to dicentric chromosomes. Dicentric chromosomes can also cause nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs; physical connections that exist between the two nuclei) (El-Zein et al., 2014). Other CAs can be assessed by examining the DNA sequence, as is the case when detecting copy number variants (CNVs) (Liu et al., 2013).

OECD defines clastogens as ‘any substance that causes structural chromosomal aberrations in populations of cells or organisms’.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

CAs can be detected before and after cell division. Widely used assays are described in the table below, however there may be other comparable methods that are not listed. 




OECD-approved assay

Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC)  Prasanna et al., 2000; Okayasu et al., 2019   Cells are exposed to mitosis-promoting factors (MPF) following cell fusion, causing the chromosomes to condense prematurely. In another approach, cells are exposed to protein phosphatase inhibitors, such as type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, also causing premature chromosome condensation.  N/A 
Chromosomal G-banding  Schwatz, 1990  Use of Giesma dye to stain chromosomal bands, abnormalities determined by the presence of altered morphology   N/A 

Fluorescent In Situ  Hybridization (FISH)

Beaton et al., 2013; Pathak

et al., 2017

Fluorescent assay of metaphase chromosomes that can detect CAs through chromosome painting and microscopic analysis


Micronuclei (MN) Assay via Microscopy in vitro   OECD, 2016a Micronuclei are scored in vitro using microscopy   Yes (No. 487) 

Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN)

Assay with Microscopy in vitro

Fenech, 2000; OECD, 2016a

Cells are cultured with cytokinesis blocking agent, fixed to slides, and undergo MN quantification using microscopy.


Yes (No.487)

Micronucleus (MN)

Assay by Microscopy in vivo

OECD, 2016b

Cells are fixed on slides and MN are scored using microscopy. Red blood cells can also be scored for MN using flow cytometry (see below)


(No. 474)

CBMN with Imaging Flow Cytometry

Rodrigues et al., 2015

Cells are cultured with cytokinesis blocking agent, fixed in solution, and imaged with flow cytometry to quantify MN


Flow cytometry detection of MN

Dertinger et al., 2004; Bryce et al., 2007; OECD 2016a, 2016b

In vivo and in vitro flow cytometry-based, automated micronuclei measurements are also done without cytokinesis block. MN analysis in vivo is performed in peripheral blood cells to detect MN in erythrocytes and reticulocytes.



Yes (No.487; No. 474)

High-throughput biomarker assays (indirect measures to confirm clastogenicity)

Bryce et al. 2014, 2016, 2018


Khoury et al., 2013, Khoury et al., 2016)



Hendriks et al., 2012, 2016; Wink et al., 2014

Multiplexed biomarkers can be measured by flow cytometry are used to discern clastogenic and aneugenic mechanisms for MN induction. Flow cytometry-based quantification of γH2AX foci and p53 protein expression (Bryce et al., 2016).


Prediscreen Assay– In-Cell Western -based quantification of γH2AX


Green fluorescent protein reporter assay to detect the activation of stress signaling pathways, including DNA damage signaling including a reporter porter that is associated with DNA double strand breaks.


Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA)

Abe et al., 2018

Cells are fixed on microscope slides, chromosomes are stained, and the number of dicentric chromosomes are quantified


High content imaging

Shahane et al., 2016

DNA can be stained using fluorescent dyes and micronuclei can be scored high-throughput microscopy image analysis.



Chromosomal aberration test


OECD, 2016c; 2016d; 20l16e

In vitro, the cell cycle is arrested at metaphase after 1.5 cell cycle following 3-6 hour exposure


In vivo, the test chemical is administered as a single treatment and bone marrow is collected 18-24 hrs later (TG 475), while testis is collected 24-48 hrs later (TG 483). The cell cycle is arrested with a metaphase-arresting chemical (e.g., colchicine) 2-5 hours before cell collection. Once cells are fixed and stained on microscope slides, chromosomal aberrations are scored


In vitro (No. 473)

In vivo (No. 475 and No. 483)

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) or SNP


Adewoye et al., 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Arlt et al., 2014; Redon et al., 2006; Keren, 2014; Mukherjee, 2017

CNVs are most commonly detected using global DNA microarray technologies; This method, however, is unable to detect balanced CAs, such as inversions



Next Generation Sequencing (NGS): Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) or

Whole Exome Sequencing (WES)

Liu, 2013; Shen, 2016; Mukherjee, 2017

CNVs are detected by fragmenting the genome and using NGS to sequence either the entire genome (WGS), or only the exome (WES); Challenges with this methodology include only being able to detect CNVs in exon-rich areas if using WES, the computational investment required for the storage and analysis of these large datasets, and the lack of computational algorithms available for effectively detecting somatic CNVs


Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Taxonomic applicability: CAs are possible in nucleated cells of any species (Ferguson-Smith, 2015).  

Life stage applicability: This key event is not life stage specific as subjects of all ages have chromosomes that can be improperly structured. However, older individuals have naturally higher baseline levels of CAs (Vick et al., 2017). Individuals born with stable type aberrations will retain them throughout their lifetime (Gardner et al., 2011). 

Sex applicability: This key event is not sex specific, with both sexes experiencing CAs at comparable rates (Kašuba et al., 1995). 

Evidence for perturbation by a stressor: Many studies have provided evidence to support increased CAs occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (Franken et al., 2012; Cornforth et al., 2002; Loucas et al., 2013).  

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Abe, Y et al. (2018), “Dose-response curves for analyzing of dicentric chromosomes and chromosome translocations following doses of 1000 mGy or less, based on irradiated peripheral blood samples from five healthy individuals”,  J Radiat Res. 59(1), 35-42. doi:10.1093/jrr/rrx052

Adewoye, al. (2015), “The genome-wide effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction in the mammalian germline”, Nat. Commun. 6:66-84. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7684.

Arlt MF, Wilson TE, Glover TW. (2012), “Replication stress and mechanisms of CNV formation”, Curr Opin Genet Dev. 22(3):204-10. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2012.01.009.

Arlt, MF. Et al. (2014), “Copy number variants are produced in response to low-dose ionizing radiation in cultured cells”, Environ Mol Mutagen. 55(2):103-13. doi: 10.1002/em.21840.

Beaton, L. A. et al. (2013), “Investigating chromosome damage using fluorescent in situ hybridization to identify biomarkers of radiosensitivity in prostate cancer patients”, Int J Radiat Biol. 89(12): 1087-1093. doi:10.3109/09553002.2013.825060

Boei, J.J., Vermeulen, S., Natarajan, A.T. (1996), “Detection of chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the first three postirradiation divisions of human lymphocytes”, Mutat Res, 349:127-135. Doi: 10.1016/0027-5107(95)00171-9.

Bonassi, S.  (2008),”Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer: results from a pooled cohort study of 22 358 subjects in 11 countries”, Carcinogenesis. 29(6):1178-83. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgn075.

Bryce SM, Bemis JC, Avlasevich SL, Dertinger SD. In vitro micronucleus assay scored by flow cytometry provides a comprehensive evaluation of cytogenetic damage and cytotoxicity. Mutat Res. 2007 Jun 15;630(1-2):78-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2007.03.002. Epub 2007 Mar 19. PMID: 17434794; PMCID: PMC1950716.

Bryce, S. et al. (2014), “Interpreting In VitroMicronucleus Positive Results: Simple Biomarker Matrix Discriminates Clastogens, Aneugens, and Misleading Positive Agents”, Environ Mol Mutagen, 55:542-555. Doi:10.1002/em.21868.

Bryce, S. et al.(2016), “Genotoxic mode of action predictions from a multiplexed flow cytometric assay and a machine learning approach”, Environ Mol Mutagen, 57:171-189. Doi: 10.1002/em.21996.

Bryce SM, Bernacki DT, Smith-Roe SL, Witt KL, Bemis JC, Dertinger SD. Investigating the Generalizability of the MultiFlow ® DNA Damage Assay and Several Companion Machine Learning Models With a Set of 103 Diverse Test Chemicals. Toxicol Sci. 2018 Mar 1;162(1):146-166. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx235. PMID: 29106658; PMCID: PMC6059150.

Bunting, S. F., & Nussenzweig, A. (2013), “End-joining, translocations and cancer”, Nature Reviews Cancer.13 (7): 443-454. doi:10.1038/nrc3537

Cornforth, M.N., S.M. Bailey, and E.H. Goodwin. (2002), “Dose Responses for Chromosome Aberrations Produced in Noncycling Primary Human Fibroblasts by Alpha Particles, and by Gamma Rays Delivered at Sublimating Low Dose Rates”, Radiation Research, Vol.158, Radiation Research Society, Indianapolis,[0043:DRFCAP]2.0.CO;2.  

Curtis, C. et al. (2012), “The genomic and transcriptomic architecture of 2,000 breast tumours reveals novel subgroups”, Nature. 486(7403):346-52. doi: 10.1038/nature10983.

Dertinger, S.D. et al.(2004), “Three-color labeling method for flow cytometric measurement of cytogenetic damage in rodent and human blood”, Environ Mol Mutagen, 44:427-435. Doi: 10.1002/em.20075.

El-Zein, RA. Et al. (2014), “The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay as a strong predictor of lung cancer: extension of a lung cancer risk prediction model”,  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 23(11):2462-70. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0462.

Fenech, M. (2000), “The in vitro micronucleus technique”, Mutation Research. 455(1-2), 81-95. Doi: 10.1016/s0027-5107(00)00065-8

Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (2015), “History and evolution of cytogenetics”, Molecular Cytogenetics, Vol.8/19, Biomed Central, London, 

Franken, N.A.P. et al. (2012), “Relative biological effectiveness of high linear energy transfer alpha-particles for the induction of DNA-double-strand breaks, chromosome aberrations and reproductive cell death in SW-1573 lung tumour cells”, Oncology Reports, Vol.27, Spandidos Publications, Athens, 

Gardner, R.M., G.R. Sutherland, and L.G. Shaffer. (2011), “Chapter 1: Elements in Medical Cytogenetics” in Chromosome abnormalities and genetic counseling (No. 61), Oxford University Press, USA, pp.7-15. 

Griffiths, A. J. F., Miller, J. H., & Suzuki, D. T. (2000), “An Introduction to Genetic Analysis”, 7th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman. Available from:

Hagmar, L. et al. (2004), “Impact of types of lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations on human cancer risk: results from Nordic and Italian cohorts”, Cancer Res. 64(6):2258-63.

Hastings PJ, Ira G & Lupski JR. (2009), “A microhomology-mediated break-induced replication model for the origin of human copy number variation”. PLoS Genet. 2009 Jan;5(1): e1000327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000327.

Hendriks, G. et al. (2012), “The ToxTracker assay: novel GFP reporter systems that provide mechanistic insight into the genotoxic properties of chemicals”, Toxicol Sci, 125:285-298. Doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr281.

Hendriks, G. et al. (2016), “The Extended ToxTracker Assay Discriminates Between Induction of DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress, and Protein Misfolding”, Toxicol Sci, 150:190-203. Doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv323.

Kašuba, V., et al. (1995), “Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes from control individuals”, Mutation Research Letters, Vol.346/4, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 

Keren, B. (2014),”The advantages of SNP arrays over CGH arrays”, Molecular Cytogenetics.7( 1):I31. Doi: 10.1186/1755-8166-7-S1-I31.

Khoury, L., Zalko, D., Audebert, M. (2016), “Evaluation of four human cell lines with distinct biotransformation properties for genotoxic screening”, Mutagenesis. 31:83-96. Doi: 10.1093/mutage/gev058.

Khoury, L., Zalko, D., Audebert, M. (2013), “Validation of high-throughput genotoxicity assay screening using cH2AX in-cell Western assay on HepG2 cells”, Environ Mol Mutagen, 54:737-746. Doi: 10.1002/em.21817.

Lee JA, Carvalho CM, Lupski JR. (2007). “Replication mechanism for generating nonrecurrent rearrangements associated with genomic disorders”, Cell. 131(7):1235-47. Doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.037.

Liu B. et al. (2013). “Computational methods for detecting copy number variations in cancer genome using next generation sequencing: principles and challenges”, Oncotarget. 4(11):1868-81. Doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.1537.

Loucas, B.D., et al. (2013), “Chromosome Damage in Human Cells by Gamma Rays, Alpha Particles and Heavy Ions: Track Interactions in Basic Dose-Response Relationships”, Radiation Research, Vol.179/1, Radiation Research Society, Indianapolis, 

Mitelman, F. (1982), “Application of cytogenetic methods to analysis of etiologic factors in carcinogenesis”, IARC Sci Publ, 39:481-496.

Mukherjee. S. et al. (2017), “Addition of chromosomal microarray and next generation sequencing to FISH and classical cytogenetics enhances genomic profiling of myeloid malignancies, Cancer Genet. 216-217:128-141. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2017.07.010.

Obe, G. et al. (2002), “Chromosomal Aberrations: formation, Identification, and Distribution”, Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 504(1-2), 17-36. Doi: 10.1016/s0027-5107(02)00076-3.

Savage, J.R. (1976), “Classification and relationships of induced chromosomal structual changes”, J Med Genet, 13:103-122. Doi: 10.1136/jmg.13.2.103.

Shahane SA, Nishihara K, Xia M. High-Throughput and High-Content Micronucleus Assay in CHO-K1 Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1473:77-85. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6346-1_9. PMID: 27518626.

OECD (2016a), Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4, OECD Publishing, Paris,

OECD (2016a), Test No. 487: In Vitro Mammalian Cell Micronucleus Test, OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4, OECD Publishing, Paris, 

OECD. (2016b), “Test No. 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4.”Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2016c), “In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test 473.”

OECD. (2016d). Test No. 475: Mammalian Bone Marrow Chromosomal Aberration Test. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2016e). Test No. 483: Mammalian Spermatogonial Chromosomal Aberration Test. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Okayasu, R. and C. Liu. (2019), “G1 premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay”, Methods in molecular biology, Humana Press, Totowa,  

Pathak, R., Koturbash, I., & Hauer-Jensen, M. (2017), “Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice”, J Vis Exp(119). doi:10.3791/55162.

Prasanna, P. G. S., N. D. Escalada and W. F. Blakely (2000), “Induction of premature chromosome condensation by a phosphatase inhibitor and a protein kinase in unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a simple and rapid technique to study chromosome aberrations using specific whole-chromosome DNA hybridization probes for biological dosimetry”, Mutation Research, Vol. 466/2, Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, https://doi/org/10.1016/S1383-5718(00)00011-5 

Redon, R. et al. (2006), “Global variation in copy number in the human genome”, Nature. 444(7118):444-54. 10.1038/nature05329.

Rodrigues, M. A., Beaton-Green, L. A., & Wilkins, R. C. (2016), “Validation of the Cytokinesis-block Micronucleus Assay Using Imaging Flow Cytometry for High Throughput Radiation Biodosimetry”, Health Phys. 110(1): 29-36. doi:10.1097/HP.0000000000000371

Schwartz, G. G. (1990), “Chromosome aberrations. Biological Markers in Epidemiology (BS Hulka, TC Wlwosky, and JD Griffith, Eds.)”, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.147-172.  

Shahane S, Nishihara K, Xia M. (2016), “High-Throughput and High-Content Micronucleus Assay in CHO-K1 Cells”, In: Zhu H, Xia M, editors. High-Throughput Screening Assays in Toxicology. New York, NY: Humana Press. p 77-85.

Shen.TW,  (2016),”Concurrent detection of targeted copy number variants and mutations using a myeloid malignancy next generation sequencing panel allows comprehensive genetic analysis using a single testing strategy”, Br J Haematol. 173(1):49-58. doi: 10.1111/bjh.13921.

Shlien A, Malkin D. (2009), “Copy number variations and cancer”, Genome Med. 1(6):62. doi: 10.1186/gm62.

Tucker, J.D., Preston, R.J. (1996), “Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, aneuploidy, sister chromatid exchanges, and cancer risk assessment”, Mutat Res, 365:147-159.

Vick, E. et al. (2017), Age-related chromosomal aberrations in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, American Society of Hematology, 

Wilson, TE. et al.  (2015), “Large transcription units unify copy number variants and common fragile sites arising under replication stress”, Genome Res. 25(2):189-200. doi: 10.1101/gr.177121.114.

Wink, S. et al. (2014), “Quantitative high content imaging of cellular adaptive stress response pathways in toxicity for chemical safety assessment”, Chem Res Toxicol, 27:338-355.

Zhang N, Wang M, Zhang P, Huang T. 2016. Classification of cancers based on copy number variation landscapes. Biochim Biophys Acta.  1860(11 Pt B):2750-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2016.06.003.