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Event: 1761

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Inhibition, Fin regeneration

Short name
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Inhibition, Fin regeneration
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Tissue

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
fin

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
fin regeneration blastemal cell decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
GR Agonism Leading to Impaired Fin Regeneration KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for citation & comment

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
teleost fish teleost fish NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Fin regeneration is a naturally occurring process in fish (Fu et al., 2013). Fin regeneration is a complex process involving coordinated cellular processes such as cellular signaling, differentiation, and migration (Wehner & Weidinger, 2015). Commonly known signaling pathways such as activin signaling, notch signaling and wnt signaling all play a role in the process of fin regeneration (Wehner & Weidinger, 2015).  Poss et al (2003) outline fin regeneration as follows:

  • Damaged vertebrate organs heal through either repair or regeneration
    • Repair:  characterized by heavy inflammation, fibrosis and formation of a collagen-rich connective tissue scar, believed to be permanent.
    • Regeneration:  damaged or lost structure is perfectly or nearly perfectly replaced
  • Blastlema – a mass of proliferative, pluripotent, progenitor cells
  • Within 1-3 h, thin epidermal layer covers wound – can occur in dissected or explanted fin regenerates
  • 12-18 h, epidermis accumulates through cell migration – β-catenin is an early molecular marker of fin regeneration – presumed to function in helping to mediate cell migration.
  • Formation of the blastlema is a hallmark of epimorphic regeneration – proliferative mass of mesenchymal cells that gives rise to the new structures
  • Switch from blastlema formation to proliferative outgrowth occurs around 4 d post-amputation (at 25 C).  -regenerate consists of mature blastlema (distal) and proximally positioned differentiating tissue – consisting of at least two cell types – scleroblasts (bone forming) and fibroblast-like cells.
  • Wfgf expression is markedly higher during outgrowth phase than during blastlema formation
  • Wnt3a is not detected during blastlema formation, but is up-regulated in distal portion of epidermis during regenerative outgrowth.
  • Distal blastema is composed of slow- or non-proliferative cells – mxsb positive
  • Proximal blastemal is rapidly proliferative
  • Immediately proximal to the PB is the patterning zone (PZ) or differentiation zone, consists of scleroblasts and differentiating mesenchymal cells.  Sonic hedgehog (shh) aligns with the border between PB and PZ (DZ)
  • Shh is thought to be responsible for scleroblast alignment and proliferation

Many, if not all the genes required for regeneration will also be required during embryonic development - this suggests contaminant mixtures that prevent fin regeneration would likely be developmentally toxic as well.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help
  • A consistent method of fin measurement was found by measuring the length of the top fin ray, bottom fin ray, and middle fin ray, as well as the total area of the fin.
  • Ellis et al. (2008) have used a fin index where Fin Index = 100 x (Fin Length/Total Length).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Fin regeneration has been observed in many species including the qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) the goldfish (Carassius auratus; Fu et al., 2013), zebrafish (Danio rerio; Sengupta et al., 2012) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), allowing the inferral of fin regeneration being universal to all ray-finned fish (teleost).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

 

Ellis T, Hoyle I, Oidtmann B, Turnbull JF, Jacklin TE, Knowles TG. 2009. Further development of the “Fin Index” method for quantifying fin erosion in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 289: 283-288. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.022

Fu C, Cao ZD, Fu SJ. 2013. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capactities. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:3164-3174. doi:10.1242/jeb.084244

Poss KD, Shen J, Keating MT, Nechiporuk A. 2003. Tales of Regeneration in Zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics 226:202-210. DOI 10.1002/dvdy.10220

Wehner D, Weidinger G. 2015. Signaling networks organizing regenerative growth of the zebrafish fin. Trends in Genetics 31 (6):336-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2015.03.012