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Key Event Title
Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Key Event Description
A stroke or cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the result of an acute disruption of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature (Khaku and Tadi, 2020). The majority of strokes are of ischemic origin and only a small percent of hemorrhagic origin. Ischemic stroke can be further characterised into embolic, thrombotic, and lacunar.
Lacunar strokes result from disruption of the small penetrating branches of the middle cerebral artery, vertebral or basilar artery or the lenticulostriate vessels. Most common causes of lacunar strokes include microemboli and fibrinoid necrosis secondary to vasculitis.
Hemorrhagic etiologies can be from aneurysm rupture, arteriovenous malformations, venous angiomas, bleeding due to drugs.
In general, the common risk factors for stroke include hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and drug use.
Patients with CVD can show any of the following symptoms
- Disturbance of consciousness (e.g. not alert and responsive, arouses to noxious stimuli, comatose…)
- Language difficulties in fluency, naming, comprehension and repetition
- Dysarthria (slurring)
- Motor deficits (e.g. subtle arm weakness)
- Visual field deficits
- Eye movement abnormalities
- Facial paralysis
Based on the symptoms, the localisation of the stroke in brain areas can be diagnosed and also support the categorisation to the following stroke syndromes: a) Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) Infarction, b) Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) Infarction, c) Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) Infarction and c) Cerebellar Infarction.
How It Is Measured or Detected
It is detected by clinical examination stat non-contrasted head computed tomogram (CT) or a combination of head CT, CT Angiography, and perfusion imaging (Khaku and Tadi, 2020).
Domain of Applicability
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
Khaku AS, Tadi P. (2020) Cerebrovascular Disease. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430927/