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Event: 2041

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Decrease, palatal shelf outgrowth

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Decrease, outgrowth
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
palatal shelves fail to meet at midline primary palate decreased
abnormal palatal shelf fusion at midline secondary palate decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Antagonism SMO leads to OFC KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Decrease, GLI1/2 target gene expression leads to OFC KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Decrease, cholesterol synthesis leads to OFC KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Vertebrates Vertebrates High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
Embryo High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

For humans and other mammals, the palate serves as a barrier between the mouth and nasal cavity allowing for simultaneous breathing and eating. The palate consists of an anterior bony hard palate and a posterior muscular soft palate that closes the nasal airways for swallowing and directs airflow to help in generation of speech (Li, Lan et al. 2017). The palate is divided into primary and secondary portions. The primary palate contains the philtrum and the upper incisor region anterior to the incisive foramen while the secondary palate encompasses the remainder of the hard and soft palate (Bush and Jiang 2012).  The secondary palate arises during embryonic development as bilateral outgrowths from the maxillary processes. In mammals, these shelves grow first vertically down the tongue before elevating to a position above the dorsum of the tongue where the two shelves meet and fuse to form an intact palate (Ferguson 1988).  

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help
  • Palatal shelf outgrowth can be quantified using imaging techniques such as 3D CT scans during development. Insufficient palatal outgrowth will result in cleft palate. The distance between palatal shelves corelating with outgrowth can be measured and quantified for these individuals.
  • Embryos can be dissected and the facial prominences measured (Rice, Connor et al. 2006).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help
  • Sex- There are no known differences in palatal outgrowth in terms of sex.
  • Life stages- The palate develops early in embryonic development. This begins between the 6th and 12th week of pregnancy in humans and between day 10.0 and 15 in mice (Okuhara and Iseki 2012).
  • Taxonomic- Palatal outgrowth is required for proper palate formation in all vertebrates.


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Bush, J. O. and R. Jiang (2012). "Palatogenesis: morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms of secondary palate development." Development 139(2): 231-243.

Ferguson, M. W. (1988). "Palate development." Development 103 Suppl: 41-60.

Li, C., Y. Lan and R. Jiang (2017). "Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Palate Development." J Dent Res 96(11): 1184-1191.

Okuhara, S. and S. Iseki (2012). "Epithelial integrity in palatal shelf elevation." Japanese Dental Science Review 48(1): 18-22.

Rice, R., E. Connor and D. P. C. Rice (2006). "Expression patterns of Hedgehog signalling pathway members during mouse palate development." Gene Expression Patterns 6(2): 206-212.