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Event: 586

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Reduced, swimming speed

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Reduced, swimming speed
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
aquatic locomotion decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
sodium channel inhibition 1 KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
sodium channel inhibition 2 KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
ether-a-go-go (ERG) inhibition KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
medaka Oryzias latipes High NCBI
Gammarus pulex Gammarus pulex High NCBI
Hydra attenuata Hydra vulgaris Moderate NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

The swimming speed may be measured by the use of an aquatic tunnel, wherein the researcher controls the speed of the water flow (see Tierney, 2001), or by using video equipment to record the distance the organism swims within a period of time (e.g., Kavitha and Rao, 2007).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

De Lange, H.J., Noordoven, W., Murk, A.J., Lürling, M., and Peeters, E.T.H.M. 2006. Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals. Aquatic toxicology 78:209-216.

Kavitha, P. and Venkateswara Rao, J. 2007. Oxidative stress and locomotor behaviour response as biomarkers for assessing recovery status of mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis after lethal effect of an organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 87:182-188.

Nassef, M., Kim, S.G., Seki, M., Kang, I.J., Hano, T., Shimasaki, Y., and Oshima, Y. 2010. In ovo nanoinjection of triclosan, diclofenac and carbamazepine affects embryonic development of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Chemosphere 79:966-973.

Quinn, B., Gagné, F., and Blaise, C. 2008. An investigation into the acute and chronic toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals (and their solvents) found in wastewater effluent on the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata. Science of The Total Environment 389:306-314.

Tierney, K.B. 2011. Swimming Performance Assessment in Fishes. Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE 2572.