To the extent possible under law, AOP-Wiki has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to KE:682

Event: 682

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Generation, Amplified excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Generation, Amplified excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
Explore in a Third Party Tool

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
brain

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
excitatory postsynaptic potential occurrence

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Blocking iGABA receptor ion channel leading to seizures KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
guinea pig Cavia porcellus High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
Adult High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is defined as a neurotransmitter-induced postsynaptic potential change that depolarizes the cell, and hence increases the likelihood of initiating a postsynaptic action potential (Purves et al. 2001). On the contrary, an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) decreases this likelihood. Whether a postsynaptic response is an EPSP or an IPSP depends on the type of channel that is coupled to the receptor, and on the concentration of permeant ions inside and outside the cell. In fact, the only factor that distinguishes postsynaptic excitation from inhibition is the reversal potential of the postsynaptic potential (PSP) in relation to the threshold voltage for generating action potentials in the postsynaptic cell. When an active presynaptic cell releases neurotransmitters into the synapse, some of them bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell. Many of these receptors contain an ion channel capable of passing positively charged ions (e.g., Na+ or K+) or negatively charged ions (e.g., Cl-) either into or out of the cell. In epileptogenesis, discharges reduced GABAA receptor-mediated hyperpolarizing IPSPs by shifting their reversal potentials in a positive direction. At the same time, the amplitudes of Schaffer collateral-evoked RS-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated EPSPs and action potential-independent miniature EPSPs were enhanced, whereas N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated EPSPs remained unchanged. Together, these changes in synaptic transmission produce a sustained increase in hippocampal excitability (Lopantsev et al. 2009).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

EPSPs are usually recorded by measuring electrical responses and changes in intracellular calcium concentration using intracellular electrodes (Miura et al. 1997) or recording extracellular electrical activity or potential using >20 electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes (often in clinical settings) (Bromfield et al. 2006). Recently, voltage-sensitive dyes have been successfully used for measuring voltage responses from large neuronal populations in acute brain slice preparations (Popovic et al. 2015; Acker et al. 2016). 

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Miura et al. (1997) reported supporting evidence from guinea pigs whereas Dichter and Ayala (1987) and Bromfield et al. (2006) summarized relevant studies on humans. Acker et al. (2016) perform simultaneous two-photon voltage-sensitive dye recording with two-photon glutamate uncaging in order to measure the characteristics (amplitude and duration) of uncaging-evoked EPSPs in acute mouse brain slices.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Acker CD, Hoyos E, Loew LM. (2016) EPSPs Measured in Proximal Dendritic Spines of Cortical Pyramidal Neurons. eNeuro. 3(2) ENEURO.0050-15.2016.

Bromfield EB, Cavazos JE, Sirven JI. (2006) Chapter 1, Basic Mechanisms Underlying Seizures and Epilepsy. In: An Introduction to Epilepsy [Internet]. West Hartford (CT): American Epilepsy Society; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2510/.

Dichter MA, Ayala GF. (1987) Cellular mechanisms of epilepsy: A status report. Science 237:157-64.

Lopantsev V, Both M, Draguhn A. 2009. Rapid Plasticity at Inhibitory and Excitatory Synapses in the Hippocampus Induced by Ictal Epileptiform Discharges. Eur J Neurosci 29(6):1153–64.

Miura M, Yoshioka M, Miyakawa H, Kato H, Ito KI. (1997) Properties of calcium spikes revealed during GABAA receptor antagonism in hippocampal CA1 neurons from guinea pigs. J Neurophysiol. 78(5):2269-79.

Popovic MA, Carnevale N, Rozsa B, Zecevic D. (2015)  Electrical behaviour of dendritic spines as revealed by voltage imaging. Nature Communications. 6:8436.

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Katz LC, LaMantia A-S, McNamara JO, Williams SM (Eds). 2001. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Chapter 7. Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Effects. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10799/.