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N/A, Neurodegeneration leads to Impairment, Learning and memory
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Chronic binding of antagonist to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) during brain development leads to neurodegeneration with impairment in learning and memory in aging||adjacent||High||Arthur Author (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease, contributed to the elucidation of the link between amyloid protein and tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive deficits. Bilateral injections of amyloid-b peptide in the frontal cortex of rats leads to progressive decline in memory and neurodegeneration in hippocampus (for review see Eslamizade et al., 2016). Recent findings have shown that soluble forms of Ab rather than insoluble forms (fibrils and plaques) are associated with memory impairment in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (for review see Salgado-Puga and Pena-Ortega, 2015). Several lines of evidence suggest that the small oligomeric forms of Ab and tau may act synergistically to promote synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (for review see Guerrerro-Minoz et al., 2015). Some reports proposed the concept of imbalance between production and clearance of Ab42 and related Ab peptides, as an initiating factor inducing hyperphosphorylation of tau and leading to neuritic dystrophy and synaptic dysfunction (for review see Selkoe and Hardy, 2016). Recent trials of three different antibodies against amyloid peptides have suggested a slowing of cognitive decline in post hoc analyses of mild Alzheimer subjects (for review see Selkoe and Hardy, 2016). Therefore cognitive deficits may be related to the level and extent of classical Alzheimer pathology landmarks, but it is also influenced by neurodegeneration (for review see Braskie and Thompson, 2013). Indeed decreased hippocampal volume due to widespread neurodegeneration and visualized by neuroimaging appears to be a significant predictor of memory decline (for review see Braskie and Thompson, 2016).
Evidence Supporting this KER
It is well accepted that impairment of cell function or cell loss in hippocampus will interfere with memory processes, since the hippocampus plays a key role in memory (Barker and Warburton, 2011). In Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus and entorhinal cortex are affected early in the disease process and cognitive deficit is correlated with brain atrophy (for review Braskie and Thompson, 2013).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There are some inconsistencies regarding the time of exposure. Some papers clearly show that early Pb exposure increases amyloid and tau pathology and cognitive decline in aging. But few studies have addressed this complex question by using an ad hoc experimental design. Other studies have descibed the effects of lifetime or long-term exposure on cognitive functions but without a precise desciption of exposure onset and duration.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Bakulski KM, Park SK, Weisskopf MG, Tucker KL, Sparrow D, Spiro A, 3rd, et al. 2014. Lead exposure, B vitamins, and plasma homocysteine in men 55 years of age and older: the VA normative aging study. Environ Health Perspect 122(10): 1066-1074.
Barker GR, Warburton EC. 2011. When is the hippocampus involved in recognition memory? J Neurosci 31(29): 10721-10731.
Bihaqi SW, Bahmani A, Subaiea GM, Zawia NH. 2014. Infantile exposure to lead and late-age cognitive decline: relevance to AD. Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10(2): 187-195.
Braskie MN, Thompson PM. 2013. Understanding cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease based on neuroimaging findings. Trends in cognitive sciences 17(10): 510-516.
Eslamizade MJ, Madjd Z, Rasoolijazi H, Saffarzadeh F, Pirhajati V, Aligholi H, et al. 2016. Impaired Memory and Evidence of Histopathology in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons through Injection of Abeta1-42 Peptides into the Frontal Cortices of Rat. Basic and clinical neuroscience 7(1): 31-41.
Gu H, Wei X, Monnot AD, Fontanilla CV, Behl M, Farlow MR, et al. 2011. Lead exposure increases levels of beta-amyloid in the brain and CSF and inhibits LRP1 expression in APP transgenic mice. Neurosci Lett 490(1): 16-20.
Gu H, Robison G, Hong L, Barrea R, Wei X, Farlow MR, et al. 2012. Increased beta-amyloid deposition in Tg-SWDI transgenic mouse brain following in vivo lead exposure. Toxicol Lett 213(2): 211-219.
Guerrero-Munoz MJ, Gerson J, Castillo-Carranza DL. 2015. Tau Oligomers: The Toxic Player at Synapses in Alzheimer's Disease. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9: 464.
Liu MC, Liu XQ, Wang W, Shen XF, Che HL, Guo YY, et al. 2012. Involvement of microglia activation in the lead induced long-term potentiation impairment. PLoS One 7(8): e43924.
Park JH, Lee DW, Park KS, Joung H. 2014. Serum trace metal levels in Alzheimer's disease and normal control groups. American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 29(1): 76-83.
Salgado-Puga K, Pena-Ortega F. 2015. Cellular and network mechanisms underlying memory impairment induced by amyloid beta protein. Protein and peptide letters 22(4): 303-321.
Schneider JS, Anderson DW, Talsania K, Mettil W, Vadigepalli R. 2012. Effects of developmental lead exposure on the hippocampal transcriptome: influences of sex, developmental period, and lead exposure level. Toxicol Sci 129(1): 108-125.
Selkoe DJ, Hardy J. 2016. The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease at 25 years. EMBO molecular medicine 8(6): 595-608.