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Relationship: 1715

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Histone deacetylase inhibition leads to Cell cycle, disrupted

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy non-adjacent High Moderate Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus Moderate NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
Not Otherwise Specified High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

HDAC inhibition leads to cell cycle arrest including G1/S phase arrest [Falkenberg and Johnstone, 2014]. The HDAC inhibition-induced cell cycle arrest is mediated by transcriptional changes of the CDK inhibitors such as p21 [Falkenberg and Johnstone, 2014].

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The knockdown of HDACs may induce antitumor effects such as cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation [Falkenberg and Johnstone, 2014]. In leukemia, an oncogenic fusion protein recruits a variety of proteins including HDACs to repress cell cycle inhibitors, which suggests that HDAC inhibition leads to cell cycle dysregulation [Falkenberg and Johnstone, 2014].

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

The involvement of p53/p63/p73 in up-regulation of p21 induced by HDAC inhibition is not fully elucidated, where time course of the p21 and p53/p63/p73 mRNA expression has demonstrated the cell-line specific differences in the responses in 4 human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3 and DU-145 [Parajuli et al., 2014].

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help
Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

MAA (5 mM) induced p21 up-regulation in 12 to 72 hrs in LNCaP, C4-2B, PC-3, and DU-145 human prostate cancer cell lines [Parajuli et al., 2014].

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

MAA induced G1 cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells (Homo sapiens) [Parajuli et al., 2014].

Apicidin induced G1 cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells (Homo sapiens) [Han et al., 2000].

The change in the amounts of cells in the G1 phase and S phase of the cell cycle was detected in mouse HDAC1 knock-out fibroblast lines (Mus musculus) [Zupkovitz et al., 2010].

Loss of HDAC1 in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells results in the acetylation of histones H3 and H4, up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, and inhibition of proliferation (Mus musculus) [Lagger et al., 2002].

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Falkenberg, K.J. and Johnstone, R.W. (2014), "Histone deacetylases and their inhibitors in cancer, neurological disease and immune disorders", Nat Rev Drug Discov 13:673-691

Glaser, K.B. et al. (2003), "Gene expression profiling of multiple histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors: defining a common gene set produced by HDAC inhibition in T24 and MDA carcinoma cell lines", Mol Cancer Ther 2:151-163

Han, J.W. et al. (2000), "Apicidin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of tumor cells via induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 and gelsolin", Cancer Res 60:6068-6074

Lagger, G. et al. (2002), "Essential function of histone deacetylase 1 in proliferation control and CDK inhibitor repression", EMBO J 21:2672-2681

Parajuli, K.R. et al. (2014), "Methoxyacetic acid suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis", Am J Clin Exp Urol 2:300-312

Zupkovitz, G. et al. (2010), "The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is a crucial target for histone deacetylase 1 as a regulator of cellular proliferation", Mol Cell Biol 30:1171-1181