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Key Event Title
Cell cycle, disrupted
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|regulation of cell cycle||cell cycle-related cyclin||disrupted|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Open for citation & comment||EAGMST Under Review|
|Not Otherwise Specified||Moderate|
Key Event Description
The disruption of the cell cycle leads to a decrease in the cell number. The cell cycle consists of G1, S, G2, M, and G0 phase. The cell cycle regulation is disrupted by the cell cycle arrest in certain cell cycle phase. The histone gene expression is regulated in cell cycle phases [Heintz et al., 1983].
How It Is Measured or Detected
The percentage of cells at G1, G0, S, and G2/M phases can be detected by flow cytometry [Li et al., 2013]. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis with a Partec PAS-II sorter [Zupkovitz et al., 2010]. The four cell cycle phases in living cells can be measured with four-color fluorescent proteins using live cell imaging [Bajar et al., 2016]. The incorporation of [3H]deoxycytidine or [3H]thymidine into cell DNA during S phase can be monitored as DNA synthesis [Heintz et al., 1982].
Domain of Applicability
The histone gene expression alters in each phase of cell cycle in human HeLa cell (Homo sapiens) [Heintz et al., 1982].
Bajar, B.T. et al. (2016), "Fluorescent indicators for simultaneous reporting of all four cell cycle phases", Nat Methods 13:993-996
Heintz, N. et al. (1983), "Regulation of human histone gene expression: Kinetics of accumulation and changes in the rate of synthesis and in the half-lives of individual histone mRNAs during the HeLa cell cycle", Molecular and Cellular Biology 3:539-550
Li, Q. et al. (2013), "Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis", Drug Des Devel Ther 7:635-643