This Key Event Relationship is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA license. This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.

Relationship: 2450

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Oxidative Stress leads to FOXJ1 Protein, Decreased

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes.Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Oxidative Stress Leading to Decreased Lung Function via Decreased FOXJ1 adjacent Agnes Aggy (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Mixed

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
All life stages

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Oxidative stress (such as that caused by cigarette smoke exposure or irradiation) leads to decreased forkhead box J1 (FOXJ1) gene and protein expression, as well as to decreased FOXJ1 target gene expression (Brekman et al., 2014; Garcia-Arcos et al., 2016; Ishikawa and Ito, 2017; Milara et al., 2012; Valencia-Gattas et al., 2016). FOXJ1 is a key factor of multiple motile cilia assembly in the respiratory airways (Zhou and Roy, 2015). Thus oxidative stress blocks the multiple ciliogenesis program in the airway epithelium.

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER. For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help

Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress downregulates FOXJ1 expression at both the gene and protein levels in human lung cells in vitro (Milara et al., 2012; Brekman et al., 2014; Valencia-Gattas et al., 2016; Ishikawa and Ito, 2017). Oxidative stress induced by human respiratory syncytial virus reduces FOXJ1 mRNA levels, which can be restored by treatment with antioxidants or the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast N-oxide (Akaike et al., 1990; Geiler et al., 2010; Mata et al., 2012). In mice, thoracic irradiation results in free radical generation and subsequent reduction in FOXJ1 mRNA expression (Bernard et al., 2012). Many genes that are transcriptionally regulated by FOXJ1 are also downregulated following exposure to cigarette smoke, which implies a reduction in FOXJ1 transcriptional activity (Brekman et al., 2014).

Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The negative association between cigarette smoke exposure and FOXJ1 levels in airways was shown in multiple studies and can be estimated as a strong linkage. Yet, the notion that oxidative stress as a result of cigarette smoke exposure is leading to decreased FOXJ1 levels is not well demonstrated. As a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals, cigarette smoke exposure could lead to reduced FOXJ1 levels via different routes. Indirect evidence, such as antioxidant molecules that restore cigarette smoke exposure-reduced FOXJ1 levels, as well evidences from other oxidative stress generating insults that decrease FOXJ1 levels add confidence to this KER. However, studies showing a link between oxidative stress generating agents and reduced FOXJ1 levels are scarce. Collectively, the empirical evidence and uncertainties of the linkage imply a moderate ranking for the KER.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

Schamberger et al. did not find any alterations in FOXJ1 mRNA levels or FOXJ1 target gene (DNAI1, DNALI1, SPAG6, TEKT1) transcription upon exposure of HBECs to 2.5% or 5% CSE for 28 days. However, in this study, cigarette smoke exposure reduced ciliated cell numbers (Schamberger et al., 2015).

The evidences listed suggest several mechanisms on how oxidative stress could lead to decreased FOXJ1 levels, including EGFR-, MCIDAS- or IL-13-mediated mechanisms. Most of the studies, however, do not corroborate on how oxidative stress mechanistically leads to reduced FOXJ1 levels. Since there are several other factors (GMNC, NOTCH, ULK4 etc.) known to regulate FOXJ1 levels, further pathways might be involved in passing the oxidative stress signal to FOXJ1.  

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help

Unknown

Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

Normal HBECs were exposed to whole cigarette smoke from 3R4F research grade cigarettes using the Vitrocell® VC 10® Smoking Robot (35-mL puff volume, 2 s duration and 1 min between puffs or air as a control). Differentiated cells were exposed every 2 d for 5 d (3 exposures), and samples were collected 48 h after treatment. Differentiating cells were exposed 3 times per week to smoke from 1 cigarette, and samples were collected after 14, 21 and 27 days. FOXJ1 protein and mRNA levels decreased 2.5-fold in differentiated and 2-fold in differentiating normal HBECs. There was a significantly lower percentage of FOXJ1-positive cells following whole smoke exposure at day 27 (4.3 +/- 4.2% vs. 13.0 +/- 7.3%, air) (Valencia-Gattas et al., 2016).

CSE was obtained from one Marlboro Red commercial cigarette bubbled in 12.5 mL of differentiation medium that was then filtered (0.2-µm pore filter). The absorbance was measured at 320 nm on a spectrophotometer, and the optical density of 1 was defined as 100% CSE. HBECs were differentiated at the air-liquid interface while being exposed to 0, 3, and 6% CSE between days 5 and 28. Treatment with 3% and 6% CSE reduced FOXJ1 mRNA levels to approx. 65% and 55% of control levels, respectively. Treatment of differentiating cultures with 3% CSE reduced FOXJ1 protein levels by 2-fold by day 28 (Brekman et al., 2014).

The smoke of one 2R4F research cigarette was bubbled into a flask containing 25 mL of pre-warmed (37°C) differentiation medium using a respiratory pump model (Harvard Apparatus Rodent Respirator 680, Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, MA, USA) that generates three puffs/min; 35 mL per each puff of 2-s duration with a volume of 0.5 cm above the filter. The solution was then filtered (0.22 µm pore size) to remove particles and the tar phase. The resulting sterile solution was defined as 100% CSE and used within 30 min of preparation. Treatment of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells with 10% CSE decreased FOXJ1 expression by about 40% at 24 h and 70% at 72 h exposure (Milara et al., 2012).

3R4F reference cigarettes were smoked in accordance with the ISO smoking protocol (35-mL puffs of 2 s each minute). Whole cigarette smoke, generated by a VC10 smoking robot, was released into a mixing device in 2.8-s exhaust and diluted with humidified clean air at 1.0 L/min dilution flow. Diluted smoke was introduced into the CULTEX RFS module and guided into the exposure chamber (5 mL/min) using a vacuum pump to expose 3D co-cultures of HBECs and fibroblasts. FOXJ1 mRNA levels were reduced to 60% and 40% of the control after exposure to CS from 1 or 4 cigarettes, respectively (Ishikawa and Ito, 2017).

RSV infection elicits reactive oxygen intermediate-mediated effects manifested by changes in the expression of NRF2 and HMOX-1 genes (approx. 6- and 9-fold increase at day 15 post-RSV infection, respectively), H2O2 generation (7-fold increase in intracellular levels at day 15 post-infection) and severe reduction in total antioxidant capacity. These data together indicate the presence of oxidative stress following infection which leads to decreased FOXJ1 mRNA levels (ca. 25% of control at 15 days post-RSV infection (Mata et al., 2012) and ca. 45% of control at 10 days after RSV infection (Mata et al., 2013).

FOXJ1 mRNA levels were reduced by 50% in murine lungs 14 days after thoracic irradiation at 15 Gy (Bernard et al., 2012).

Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

Whole cigarette smoke exposure from one 3R4F research grade cigarette using the Vitrocell® VC 10® Smoking Robot (35-mL puff volume, 2-s duration and 1 min between puffs or air as a control) once a day on alternate days for 5 days decreased FOXJ1 mRNA levels by 2.5-fold in differentiated HBECs (Valencia-Gattas et al., 2016).

Whole cigarette smoke exposure from one 3R4F research grade cigarette using the Vitrocell® VC 10® Smoking Robot (35-mL puff volume, 2-s duration and 1 min between puffs or air as a control) for 3 times per week for 4 weeks (27 days) decreased FOXJ1 mRNA levels by 2-fold in differentiating HBECs (Valencia-Gattas et al., 2016).

Treatment of differentiating HBECs (between days 5 and 28 of the air-liquid interface) with 3% CSE reduced FOXJ1 protein levels by 2-fold by day 28. Treatment of differentiating HBECs with 6% CSE reduced FOXJ1 protein levels by approx. 55% by day 28 (Brekman et al., 2014).

Treatment of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells with 10% CSE decreased FOXJ1 expression by about 40% at 24 h and ca. 70% at 72 h (Milara et al., 2012). 

Repeated exposure of 3D bronchial epithelial cultures to whole smoke of 4 cigarettes (every other day, treatment started on ALI culture day 7) resulted in a 2.5-fold decrease of FOXJ1 mRNA levels by day 21 (Ishikawa and Ito, 2017).

At 15 days post-RSV infection, FOXJ1 mRNA levels were 4-fold reduced compared to untreated samples (Mata et al., 2012). In another study from the same group, FOXJ1 mRNA levels were reduced to 45% of the FOXJ1 levels in uninfected sample at 10 days post-RSV infection (Mata et al., 2013).

At 7 and 14 days after 15 GY thoracic irradiation, FOXJ1 mRNA levels were reduced to approx. 70% and 50% of controls, respectively (Bernard et al., 2012).

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Unknown

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Akaike, T., Ando, M., Oda, T., Doi, T., Ijiri, S., Araki, S., et al. (1990). Dependence on O2- generation by xanthine oxidase of pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 85, 739-745. 

Azzam, E.I., Jay-Gerin, J.P., and Pain, D. (2012). Ionizing radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress and prolonged cell injury. Cancer Lett. 327, 48-60. 

Baumung, C., Rehm, J., Franke, H., and Lachenmeier, D.W. (2016). Comparative risk assessment of tobacco smoke constituents using the margin of exposure approach: the neglected contribution of nicotine. Sci. Rep. 6, 35577.

Bernard, M.E., Kim, H., Rajagopalan, M.S., Stone, B., Salimi, U., Rwigema, J.C., et al. (2012). Repopulation of the irradiation damaged lung with bone marrow-derived cells. In Vivo 26, 9-18.

Brekman, A., Walters, M.S., Tilley, A.E., and Crystal, R.G. (2014). FOXJ1 prevents cilia growth inhibition by cigarette smoke in human airway epithelium in vitro. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 51, 688-700.

Garcia-Arcos, I., Geraghty, P., Baumlin, N., Campos, M., Dabo, A.J., Jundi, B., et al. (2016). Chronic electronic cigarette exposure in mice induces features of COPD in a nicotine-dependent manner. Thorax 71, 1119-1129. 

Ishikawa, S., and Ito, S. (2017). Repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure alters cell differentiation and augments secretion of inflammatory mediators in air-liquid interface three-dimensional co-culture model of human bronchial tissue. Toxicol. In Vitro 38, 170-178.

Koc, M., Taysi, S., Buyukokuroglu, M.E., and Bakan, N. (2003). Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury. J. Radiat. Res. 44, 211-215. 

Mata, M., Martinez, I., Melero, J.A., Tenor, H., and Cortijo, J. (2013). Roflumilast inhibits respiratory syncytial virus infection in human differentiated bronchial epithelial cells. PLoS One 8, e69670. 

Mata, M., Sarrion, I., Armengot, M., Carda, C., Martinez, I., Melero, J.A., et al. (2012). Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine. PloS One 7, e48037.

Milara, J., Armengot, M., Bañuls, P., Tenor, H., Beume, R., Artigues, E., et al. (2012). Roflumilast N-oxide, a PDE4 inhibitor, improves cilia motility and ciliated human bronchial epithelial cells compromised by cigarette smoke in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol. 166, 2243-2262. 

Rodrigues-Moreira, S., Moreno, S.G., Ghinatti, G., Lewandowski, D., Hoffschir, F., Ferri, F., et al. (2017). Low-Dose Irradiation Promotes Persistent Oxidative Stress and Decreases Self-Renewal in Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Cell Rep. 20, 3199-3211. 

Schamberger, A.C., Staab-Weijnitz, C.A., Mise-Racek, N., and Eickelberg, O. (2015). Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface. Sci. Rep. 5, 8163.

Shirazi, A., Mihandoost, E., Ghobadi, G., Mohseni, M., and Ghazi-Khansari, M. (2013). Evaluation of radio-protective effect of melatonin on whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage. Cell J. 14, 292-297.

Valencia-Gattas, M., Conner, G.E., and Fregien, N.L. (2016). Gefitinib, an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor, Prevents Smoke-Mediated Ciliated Airway Epithelial Cell Loss and Promotes Their Recovery. PloS One 11, e0160216. 

Zhou, F., and Roy, S. (2015). SnapShot: Motile Cilia. Cell 162, 224 (e221).