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Cell injury/death leads to Neuroinflammation
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Chronic binding of antagonist to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) during brain development leads to neurodegeneration with impairment in learning and memory in aging||adjacent||Moderate||Arthur Author (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
|Binding of electrophilic chemicals to SH(thiol)-group of proteins and /or to seleno-proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress during brain development leads to impairment of learning and memory||adjacent||Moderate||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||EAGMST Under Review|
|Binding of agonists to ionotropic glutamate receptors in adult brain causes excitotoxicity that mediates neuronal cell death, contributing to learning and memory impairment.||adjacent||Low||Low||Allie Always (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
The pioneering work of Kreutzberg and coworkers (1995, 1996) has shown that neuronal injury leads to neuroinflammation, with microglia and astrocyte reactivities. Several chemokines and chemokines receptors (fraktalkine, CD200) control the neuron-microglia interactions, and a loss of this control can trigger microglial reactivity (Blank and Prinz, 2013; Chapman et al., 2000; Streit et al., 2001). Upon injury causing neuronal death (mainly necrotic), signals termed Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are released by damaged neurons and promote microglial reactivity (Marin-Teva et al., 2011; Katsumoto et al., 2014). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize specific pathogen- and danger-associated molecular signatures (PAMPs and DAMPs) and subsequently initiate inflammatory and immune responses. Microglial cells express TLRs, mainly TLR-2, which can detect neuronal cell death (for review, see Hayward and Lee, 2014). TLR-2 functions as a master sentry receptor to detect neuronal death and tissue damage in many different neurological conditions including nerve trans-section injury, traumatic brain injury and hippocampal excitotoxicity (Hayward and Lee, 2014). Astrocytes, the other cellular mediator of neuroinflammation (Ranshoff and Brown, 2012) are also able to sense tissue injury via TLR-3 (Farina et al., 2007; Rossi, 2015).
Evidence Supporting this KER
It is widely accepted that cell/neuronal injury and death lead to neuroinflammation (microglial and astrocyte reactivities) in adult brain. In the developing brain, neuroinflammation was observed after neurodegeneration induced by excitotoxic lesions (Acarin et al., 1997; Dommergues et al., 2003) or after ethanol exposure (Tiwari et al., 2012; Ahmad et al., 2016). It is important to note that physiological activation of microglial cells is observed during normal brain development for removal of apoptotic debris (Ashwell 1990, 1991). But exposure to toxicant (ethanol), excitotoxic insults (kainic acid) or traumatic brain injury during development can also induce apoptosis in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as measured either by TUNEL, BID or caspase 3 upregulation associated to an inflammatory response, as evidenced by increased level of pro- inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, TNF-a, of NO, of p65 NF-kB or of the marker of astrogliosis, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting that, during brain development, neuroinflammation can also be triggerred by apoptosis induced by several types of insult (Tiwari and Chopra, 2012; Baratz et al., 2015; Mesuret et al., 2014).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
It is interesting to note that glial cells and in particular astrocytes are able to accumulate lead, suggesting that thes cells may be also a primary target of lead neurotoxic effects (Zurich et al., 1998; Lindhal et al., 1999).
Sobin and coworkers (2013) described a Pb-induced decrease in dentate gyrus volume associated with microglial reactivity at low dose of Pb (30 ppm), but not at high doses (330 ppm), plausibly due to the death of microglial cells at the high dose of Pb.
Pb decreased IL-6 secretion by isolated astrocytes (Qian et al., 2007). Such a decrease was also observed in isolated astrocytes treated with methylmercury, and was reverted in microglia astrocyte co-cultures, suggesting that cell-cell interactions can modify the response to a toxicant and that cultures of a single cell type may not be representative of the organ toxicity (Eskes et al., 2002).
Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats have received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DomA (0, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and have been sacrificed 3 h after the treatment. Histopathological analysis of these animals has shown no alterations for GFAP immunostaining in the dorsal hippocampus and olfactory bulb, indicating absence of reactive gliosis (Baron et al., 2013).
The exposed zebrafish from the 36-week treatment with DomA showed no neuroinflammation in brain (Hiolski et al., 2014). At the same time, microarray analysis revealed no significant changes in gfap gene expression, a marker of neuroinflammation and astrocyte activation (Hiolski et al., 2014).
Mouse developmental exposure to 50 mM of HgCl2 in maternal drinking water from GD8 to PD21 did not induce any change in GM-CSF, IFN-g, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70. IL-13, IL-17, MCP1, MIP2 and TNF-a measured by Luminex in brain slices of PD21 and PD70. No sex differences, but brain increase of IgG and increased sociability in females (Zhang et al., 2012).
3D rat brain cell cultures treated for 10 days with HgCl2 or MeHgCl (10-10 - 10-6 M) exhibited increased apotosis measured by TUNEL, but exclusively in immature cultures. The proportion of cells undergoing apoptotis was highest for astrocytes than for neurons. But the apoptotic nuclei were not associated with reactive microglial cells as evidenced by double staining (Monnet-Tschudi, 1998).
A 2 weeks exposure to acrylamide in drinking water (44mg/kg/day) induced behavioral effects, such a decreased in locomotor activity, but with no effect at gene level on neuronal and inflammatory markers analyzed in somatosensory and motor cortex (Bowyer et al., 2009).
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
California sea lions that have been exposed to the marine biotoxin DomA developed an acute or chronic toxicosis marked by seizures, whereas histopathological analysis revealed neuroinflammation characterised by gliosis (Kirkley et al., 2014).
Neuroinflammation has been described in mammals (rat, mouse, monkey, human).
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