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Relationship: 749

Title

A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Hippocampal anatomy, Altered leads to Hippocampal Physiology, Altered

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent Moderate Low Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent Moderate Low Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Thyroid Receptor Antagonism and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent Moderate Low Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Upregulation of Thyroid Hormone Catabolism via Activation of Hepatic Nuclear Receptors, and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Open for adoption Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
rat Rattus norvegicus Moderate NCBI
mouse Mus musculus Moderate NCBI
human Homo sapiens Not Specified NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Male High
Female High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
During brain development High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

The hippocampus is a highly integrated and organized communication and information processing network with millions of interconnections among its constitutive neurons (see Andersen et al, 2006). The neuronal spine is the primary site of action for synaptic interface between neurons. Although difficult to measure due to their small size, large number and variable shapes, changes in the frequency and structure of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons has dramatic effects on synaptic physiology and plasticity (Harris et al., 1992). Anatomical integrity at a more macro-level is also essential for physiological function. The connectivity of axons emanating from one set of cells that synapse on the dendrites of the receiving cells must be intact for effective communication between neurons to be possible. Synaptogenesis is a critical step for neurons to be integrated into neural networks during development. Changes in the placement of cells within the network due to delays or alterations in neuronal migration, the absence of a full proliferation of dendritic arbors and spine upon which synaptic contacts are made, and the lagging of transmission of electrical impulses due to insufficient myelination will independently and cumulatively impair synaptic function.

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help

The weight of evidence supporting the relationship between structural abnormalities in brain induced and altered synaptic function is moderate. There is no doubt that altered structure can lead to altered function. Many examples from knock out models, genetic mutations, prenatal alcohol, nutritional deficits demonstrate a correlative link between altered structure and impaired synaptic function within the hippocampus (Gil-Mohapel et al., 2010; Berman and Hannigan, 2000; Grant et al., 1992; Palop et al., 2010; Ieraci and Herrera, 2007). However, the scientific understanding of the causative and quantitative relationship between the two KEs is incomplete. 

Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The biological plausibility of alterations in hippocampal structure having an impact on synaptic function and plasticity in brain is strong. Because synaptic transmission in the hippocampus relies on the integrity of contacts and the reliability of electrical and chemical transmission between pre- and post-synaptic neurons, it is well accepted that interference on the anatomical levels will very much impact the functional output on the neurophysiological level (Knowles, 1992; Schultz and Engelhardt, 2014). 

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

There are no inconsistencies in this KER, but there are uncertainties. Although several examples are evident to demonstrate direct linkages between alterations in hippocampal anatomy and disruptions in hippocampal physiology, there is not a common cellular mechanism, anatomical insult, or signature pattern of synaptic impairment that defines a common anatomically driven physiological phenotype.  In addition, it is also known that there is an interaction between physiological and anatomical development, where anatomy develops first, and can be ‘reshaped’ by the ongoing maturation of physiological function (e.g., Kutsarova et al., 2017)

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

Information does not exist to develop quantitative relationships between the KEs in this KER. Papers that utilize knock-out and mutant models have not provided ‘dose-response’ information for anatomy-physiology relationships.

Time-scale
Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

The majority of data in support of this KER is from rodent models. The evolutionary conservation of hippocampal anatomy in mammals, birds, and reptiles (see Hevner, 2016; Streidter, 2015) suggests, with some uncertainty, that this KER is also applicable to multiple species.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Andersen, P., Morris,R., Amaral,D., Bliss,T., O'Keefe, J. (Editors). The Hippocampus Book. Oxford University Press, 2006.  ISBN: 9780195100273

Berman RF, Hannigan JH. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the hippocampus: spatial behavior, electrophysiology, and neuroanatomy. Hippocampus. 2000;10(1):94-110.

Bruel-Jungerman E, Davis S, Laroche S (2007) Brain plasticity mechanisms and memory: a party of four. Neuroscientist 13:492-505.

Bruel-Jungerman E, Veyrac A, Dufour F, Horwood J, Laroche S, Davis S (2009) Inhibition of PI3K-Akt signaling blocks exercise-mediated enhancement of adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. PLoS One 4:e7901.

Deng W, Aimone JB, Gage FH (2010) New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory Nat Rev Neurosci 11:339-350.

Gil-Mohapel J, Boehme F, Kainer L, Christie BR. Hippocampal cell loss and neurogenesis after fetal alcohol exposure: insights from different rodent models.Brain Res Rev. 2010 Sep 24;64(2):283-303.

Gilbert ME, Goodman JH, Gomez J, Johnstone AF, Ramos RL. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired by transient and moderate developmental thyroid hormone disruption. Neurotoxicology. 2016 Dec 31;59:9-21.

Grant SG, O'Dell TJ, Karl KA, Stein PL, Soriano P, Kandel ER. Impaired long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and hippocampal development in fyn mutant mice. Science. 1992 Dec 18;258(5090):1903-10.

Harris KM, Teyler TJ. Developmental onset of long-term potentiation in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus. J Physiol. 1984 Jan;346:27-48.

Herrera DG, Yague AG, Johnsen-Soriano S, Bosch-Morell F, Collado-Morente L, Muriach M, Romero FJ, Garcia-Verdugo JM (2003) Selective impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis by chronic alcoholism: protective effects of an antioxidant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7919-7924.

Hevner RF.  Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol. 2016 524(3):578-94.

Ieraci A, Herrera DG. Single alcohol exposure in early life damages hippocampal stem/progenitor cells and reduces adult neurogenesis. Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Jun;26(3):597-605.

Kameda M, Taylor CJ, Walker TL, Black DM, Abraham WC, Bartlett PF (2012) Activation of latent precursors in the hippocampus is dependent on long-term potentiation. Transl Psychiatry 2:e72.

Kapoor R, Fanibunda SE, Desouza LA, Guha SK, Vaidya VA (2015) Perspectives on thyroid hormone action in adult neurogenesis. J Neurochem 133:599-616.

Knowles WD, Normal anatomy and neurophysiology of the hippocampal formation. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1992 Apr;9(2):252-63.

Kutsarova E, Munz M, Ruthazer ES.  Rules for Shaping Neural Connections in the Developing Brain.  Front Neural Circuits. 2017. 10:111. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00111.

Lee KH, Lee H, Yang CH, Ko JS, Park CH, Woo RS, Kim JY, Sun W, Kim JH, Ho WK, Lee SH. Bidirectional Signaling of Neuregulin-2 Mediates Formation of GABAergicSynapses and Maturation of Glutamatergic Synapses in Newborn Granule Cells ofPostnatal Hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2015 Dec 16;35(50):16479-93.

Lessmann V, Stroh-Kaffei S, Steinbrecher V, Edelmann E, Brigadski T, Kilb W, Luhmann HJ. The expression mechanism of the residual LTP in the CA1 region ofBDNF k.o. mice is insensitive to NO synthase inhibition. Brain Res. 2011. 1391:14-23.

Montero-Pedrazuela A, Venero C, Lavado-Autric R, Fernandez-Lamo I, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Bernal J, Guadano-Ferraz A (2006) Modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by thyroid hormones: implications in depressive-like behavior. Mol Psychiatry 11:361-371.

Palop JJ, Chin J, Roberson ED, Wang J, Thwin MT, Bien-Ly N, Yoo J, Ho KO, Yu GQ, Kreitzer A, Finkbeiner S, Noebels JL, Mucke L. Aberrant excitatory neuronal activity and compensatory remodeling of inhibitory hippocampal circuits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2007 Sep 6;55(5):697-711.

Panja, D. and C. R. Bramham (2014). "BDNF mechanisms in late LTP formation: A synthesis and breakdown." Neuropharmacology 76 Pt C: 664-676.Schultz C, Engelhardt M. Anatomy of the hippocampal formation. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2014. 34:6-17

Saxe MD, Battaglia F, Wang JW, Malleret G, David DJ, Monckton JE, Garcia AD,

Sofroniew MV, Kandel ER, Santarelli L, Hen R, Drew MR. Ablation of hippocampal neurogenesis impairs contextual fear conditioning and synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Nov 14;103(46):17501-6.

Seed J, Carney EW, Corley RA, Crofton KM, DeSesso JM, Foster PM, Kavlock R, Kimmel G, Klaunig J, Meek ME, Preston RJ, Slikker W Jr, Tabacova S, Williams GM, Wiltse J, Zoeller RT, Fenner-Crisp P, Patton DE.  Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 35:664-72.

Schultz C, Engelhardt M.  Anatomy of the hippocampal formation.  Front Neurol Neurosci. 2014. 4:6-17.

Sofroniew et al., 2006

Spilker C, Nullmeier S, Grochowska KM, Schumacher A, Butnaru I, Macharadze T, Gomes GM, Yuanxiang P, Bayraktar G, Rodenstein C, Geiseler C, Kolodziej A, Lopez-Rojas J, Montag D, Angenstein F, Bär J, D'Hanis W, Roskoden T, MikhaylovaM, Budinger E, Ohl FW, Stork O, Zenclussen AC, Karpova A, Schwegler H, Kreutz MR.  A Jacob/Nsmf Gene Knockout Results in Hippocampal Dysplasia and Impaired BDNFSignaling in Dendritogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2016 Mar 15;12(3):e1005907

Striedter GF.  Evolution of the hippocampus in reptiles and birds.  J Comp Neurol. 2016 Feb 15;524(3):496-517

Triviño-Paredes J, Patten AR, Gil-Mohapel J, Christie BR. The effects of hormones and physical exercise on hippocampal structural plasticity. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2016. 41:23-43.