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Relationship: 872

Title

The title of the KER should clearly define the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream and which is downstream). Consequently all KER titles take the form “upstream KE leads to downstream KE”.  More help

Thyroidal Iodide, Decreased leads to TH synthesis, Decreased

Upstream event
Upstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help
Downstream event
Downstream event in the Key Event Relationship. On the KER page, clicking on the Event name under Upstream Relationship will bring the user to that individual KE page. More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

This table is automatically generated upon addition of a KER to an AOP. All of the AOPs that are linked to this KER will automatically be listed in this subsection. Clicking on the name of the AOP in the table will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent High High Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Inhibition of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) leads to learning and memory impairment adjacent High High Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed
Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High Moderate Arthur Author (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High Moderate Arthur Author (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Select one or more structured terms that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER. In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER. Authors can indicate the relevant taxa for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 30-31 and 37-38 of User Handbook) More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
African clawed frog Xenopus laevis NCBI

Sex Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant sex for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of the User Handbook). More help
Sex Evidence
Mixed High

Life Stage Applicability

Authors can indicate the relevant life stage for this KER in this subsection. The process is similar to what is described for KEs (see pages 31-32 of User Handbook). More help
Term Evidence
During brain development High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provide a brief, descriptive summation of the KER. While the title itself is fairly descriptive, this section can provide details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves (see page 39 of the User Handbook). This description section can be viewed as providing the increased specificity in the nature of upstream perturbation (KEupstream) that leads to a particular downstream perturbation (KEdownstream), while allowing the KE descriptions to remain generalised so they can be linked to different AOPs. The description is also intended to provide a concise overview for readers who may want a brief summation, without needing to read through the detailed support for the relationship (covered below). Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs that are not part of this KER, other KERs or other AOPs. This will ensure that the KER is modular and can be used by other AOPs. More help

Thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are synthesized in the thyroid gland in the presence of functional NIS and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) as iodinated thyroglobulin (Tg), and stored in the colloid of thyroid follicles. NIS is a membrane bound glycoprotein whose main physiological function is to transport one iodide ion along with two sodium ions across the basolateral membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Extensive studies on NIS protein have identified 14 different mutations and each one of them is related to Iodine Transport Deficiencies (ITD) (Spitzweg and Morris, 2010). Once inside the follicular cells, the iodide diffuses to the apical membrane, where it is metabolically oxidized through the action of TPO to iodinium (I+), which in turn iodinates tyrosine residues of the Tg proteins in the follicle colloid. Therefore, NIS is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). TPO is a heme-containing apical membrane protein within the follicular lumen of thyrocytes that acts as the enzymatic catalyst for TH synthesis (Taurog, 2005). Propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI), are thioureylene drugs that are known to inhibit the ability of TPO to: a) activate iodine and transfer it to thyroglobulin (Tg) (Davidson et al., 1978) and, b) couple thyroglobulin (Tg)-bound iodotyrosyls to produce Tg-bound T3 and T4 (Taurog, 2005). PTU and MMI have been found to decrease also the expression of NIS mRNA and consequently iodide accumulation, as shown in FRTL-5 cells (Spitzweg et al. 1999).

Other compounds, such as triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported to decrease thyroid hormone (TH) levels by inducing an inhibition of NIS-mediated iodide uptake and altering the expression of genes involved in TH synthesis in rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells, and on the activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO), using rat thyroid microsomes (Wu Y et al. 2016).

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide, which are competitive inhibitors of iodide uptake, have been shown to inhibit radioactive iodide uptake by NIS (Tonacchera et al. 2004), consequentially resulting in inhibition of TH synthesis. In particular, perchlorate blocks iodide uptake into the thyroid through NIS inhibition and decreases the production of TH (Steinmaus, 2016a). More recent evidence also suggests that young children, pregnant women, foetuses, and people co-exposed to similarly acting agents may be especially susceptible to perchlorate-induced toxicity (Steinmaus et al., 2016b).

Concern about environmental perchlorate exposure is focused on its inhibition of iodide uptake into the thyroid (MIE). Decreased iodine intake may decrease thyroid hormone production. Perchlorate exposure, therefore, might be particularly detrimental in iodine-deficient individuals. Median urinary iodine levels are used instead and reflect dietary iodine sufficiency across populations (International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD); available from: www.iccidd.org). According to ICCIDD report Iodine deficiency continues to be an important global public health issue, with an estimated 2.2 million people (38% of the world's population) living in iodine-deficient areas. In 1990, the United Nations World Summit for Children set forth the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide (UNICEF World Summit for Children. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/wsc/declare.htm; 1990).  Considerable progress has been achieved by programmes of universal salt iodisation (USI) in various countries, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. A guide for programme managers. World Health Organization; Geneva: 2007. Assessment of the iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination.WHO/NHD/01.1). However, many countries remain iodine deficient (de Benoist et al., 2013; Lazarus and Delange, 2004). In the U.S., data from large population studies have shown that median urinary iodine levels decreased by approximately 50% between the early 1970s and the early 1990s, although the population overall remained iodine sufficient (Hollowell et al., 1998). Subsequent studies have shown that this decrease has stabilised (Caldwell et al., 2005). The WHO still considers iodine deficiency, which leads to hypothyroidism, the single most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide (WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, 2007). The most vulnerable groups are pregnant and lactating women and their developing fetuses and neonates, given the crucial importance of iodine to ensure adequate levels of thyroid hormones for brain maturation. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a prevailing problem not only in developing countries, but also in western industrialized nations and other countries classified as free of iodine deficiency, and solution may be found in dietary changes (Moog et al., 2017).

Evidence Supporting this KER

Assembly and description of the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP is an important step in the AOP development process that sets the stage for overall assessment of the AOP (see pages 49-56 of the User Handbook). To do this, biological plausibility, empirical support, and the current quantitative understanding of the KER are evaluated with regard to the predictive relationships/associations between defined pairs of KEs as a basis for considering WoE (page 55 of User Handbook). In addition, uncertainties and inconsistencies are considered. More help
Biological Plausibility
Define, in free text, the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream. What are the structural or functional relationships between the KEs? For example, there is a functional relationship between an enzyme’s activity and the product of a reaction it catalyses. Supporting references should be included. However, it is recognised that there may be cases where the biological relationship between two KEs is very well established, to the extent that it is widely accepted and consistently supported by so much literature that it is unnecessary and impractical to cite the relevant primary literature. Citation of review articles or other secondary sources, like text books, may be reasonable in such cases. The primary intent is to provide scientifically credible support for the structural and/or functional relationship between the pair of KEs if one is known. The description of biological plausibility can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured (see page 40 of the User Handbook for further information).   More help

The association between these two KEs is strong, and supported by in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies. Blocking iodide uptake into the thyroid follicular cells as a consequence of NIS inhibition or functional impairment, leads to reduced TH synthesis. Compounds that have been shown to inhibit NIS function (e.g., perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide), has also been proven to decrease TH synthesis by inducing a downregulation of TPO gene expression and/or increase of TSH level, which are both indicative of a reduce TH biosynthesis. TSH receptor controls transcription and posttranslational modification of NIS (Dai et al., 1996). Stimulation of TSH receptor increases T3 and T4 production and secretion (Szkudlinski et al., 2002). NIS gene expression is suppressed by growth factors such as IGF-1 and TGF-β (the latter is induced by the BRAF-V600E oncogene), which prevent NIS to localize in the basolateral membrane (Riesco-Eizaguirre et al., 2009). The BRAF-V600E oncogene is also associated with downregulation TSH receptor (Kleiman et al. 2013). Altogether these studies support the association between NIS inhibition-induced decreased iodide uptake (KE up) and reduced TH synthesis (KE down).

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
In addition to outlining the evidence supporting a particular linkage, it is also important to identify inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship. Additionally, while there are expected patterns of concordance that support a causal linkage between the KEs in the pair, it is also helpful to identify experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. Identification of uncertainties and inconsistencies contribute to evaluation of the overall WoE supporting the AOPs that contain a given KER and to the identification of research gaps that warrant investigation (seep pages 41-42 of the User Handbook).Given that AOPs are intended to support regulatory applications, AOP developers should focus on those inconsistencies or gaps that would have a direct bearing or impact on the confidence in the KER and its use as a basis for inference or extrapolation in a regulatory setting. Uncertainties that may be of academic interest but would have little impact on regulatory application don’t need to be described. In general, this section details evidence that may raise questions regarding the overall validity and predictive utility of the KER (including consideration of both biological plausibility and empirical support). It also contributes along with several other elements to the overall evaluation of the WoE for the KER (see Section 4 of the User Handbook).  More help

Some studies have highlighted contradictory results in relation to response to chemicals. For instance, PTU and MMI have been shown to inhibit the activity of TPO in rats (Davidson et al., 1978), while inducing an increase of cellular TPO activity and TPO mRNA in cultured porcine thyroid follicles (Sugawara et al., 1999). PTU was also found to increase NIS gene expression, and the accumulation of 125I, as shown in in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells, while MMI had no effect (Sue et al., 2012).

Moreover, despite the well described effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide on iodide uptake into the thyroid, occupational and clinical dosing studies have not identified clear adverse effects, particularly in the case of perchlorate (Tarone et al. 2010). For instance, a longitudinal epidemiologic Chilean study found that there were no increases of thyroglobulin (Tg) or thyrotropin (TSH) levels, and no decreases of free T4 levels among either women during early pregnancy, late pregnancy, or the neonates at birth related to perchlorate in drinking water, suggesting that perchlorate in drinking water at 114 microg/L did not cause changes in neonatal thyroid function or fetal growth retardation (Téllez Téllez et al., 2005). Similarly, no associations between urine perchlorate concentrations and serum TSH or free T4 were found in individual euthyroid or hypothyroid/hypothyroxinemic cohorts of 261 hypothyroid/hypothyroxinemic and 526 euthyroid women from Turin and 374 hypothyroid/hypothyroxinemic and 480 euthyroid women from Cardiff (Pearce et al., 2010), suggesting that log perchlorate may not be a predictor of serum free T4 or TSH. However, it should be considered that these studies may be limited by short study durations, and the inclusion of mostly healthy adults (Steinmaus, 2016b).

Charnley's (2008) review examines several studies pointing out a number of inconsistent conclusions regarding link between TH serum levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and environmental perchlorate exposure (Charnley et al. 2008). For instance, no correlations were found between TH serum levels and urinary iodine concentrations among women exposed to perchlorate participating in the 2000-2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Available evidence does not support a causal relationship between changes in TH levels and current environmental levels of perchlorate exposure, but does support the conclusion that the US EPA's reference dose (RfD) for perchlorate is conservatively health-protective. However, potential perchlorate risks are unlikely to be distinguishable from the ubiquitous background of naturally occurring substances present at much higher exposures that can affect the thyroid via the same biological mode of action as perchlorate, such as nitrate and thiocyanate. Therefore, risk management approaches that account for both aggregate and cumulative exposures and that consider the larger public health context in which exposures are occurring are desirable.

In a cross-sectional analysis, McMullen et al. (2017) evaluated the exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate in 3151 participants aged 12 to 80, to assess whether sensitivity  to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate (NIS inhibitors) could be a factor of age and sex. These results indicate that adolescent boys and girls represent the most vulnerable subpopulations to NIS symporter inhibitors. Therefore, discrepancies in results described in epidemiological studies may be due to difference in age of study participants. 

Apart from age, relative source contribution of perchlorate exposure plays an important role in determining a significant reduction of serum TH levels. For instance, Lumen and George (2017) showed that there was no significant difference in geometric mean estimates of free T4 when perchlorate exposure from food only was compared to no perchlorate exposure in pregnant women. The reduction in maternal free T4 levels reached statistical significance when an added contribution from drinking water was assumed in addition to the 90th percentile of food intake for pregnant women. In particular, a daily intake of 0.45- 0.50μg/kg/day of perchlorate was necessary to produce results that were significantly different than those obtained from no perchlorate exposure. The authors comment that 'these modelling results can explain why findings from observational studies present inconsistent outcomes regarding the relationship between perchlorate exposure and thyroid hormone levels'."

Response-response Relationship
This subsection should be used to define sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs. In particular, information regarding the general form of the relationship (e.g., linear, exponential, sigmoidal, threshold, etc.) should be captured if possible. If there are specific mathematical functions or computational models relevant to the KER in question that have been defined, those should also be cited and/or described where possible, along with information concerning the approximate range of certainty with which the state of the KEdownstream can be predicted based on the measured state of the KEupstream (i.e., can it be predicted within a factor of two, or within three orders of magnitude?). For example, a regression equation may reasonably describe the response-response relationship between the two KERs, but that relationship may have only been validated/tested in a single species under steady state exposure conditions. Those types of details would be useful to capture.  More help
Time-scale
This sub-section should be used to provide information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). This can be useful information both in terms of modelling the KER, as well as for analyzing the critical or dominant paths through an AOP network (e.g., identification of an AO that could kill an organism in a matter of hours will generally be of higher priority than other potential AOs that take weeks or months to develop). Identification of time-scale can also aid the assessment of temporal concordance. For example, for a KER that operates on a time-scale of days, measurement of both KEs after just hours of exposure in a short-term experiment could lead to incorrect conclusions regarding dose-response or temporal concordance if the time-scale of the upstream to downstream transition was not considered. More help
Known modulating factors
This sub-section presents information regarding modulating factors/variables known to alter the shape of the response-response function that describes the quantitative relationship between the two KEs (for example, an iodine deficient diet causes a significant increase in the slope of the relationship; a particular genotype doubles the sensitivity of KEdownstream to changes in KEupstream). Information on these known modulating factors should be listed in this subsection, along with relevant information regarding the manner in which the modulating factor can be expected to alter the relationship (if known). Note, this section should focus on those modulating factors for which solid evidence supported by relevant data and literature is available. It should NOT list all possible/plausible modulating factors. In this regard, it is useful to bear in mind that many risk assessments conducted through conventional apical guideline testing-based approaches generally consider few if any modulating factors. More help
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This subsection should define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits? In some cases where feedback processes are measurable and causally linked to the outcome, they should be represented as KEs. However, in most cases these features are expected to predominantly influence the shape of the response-response, time-course, behaviours between selected KEs. For example, if a feedback loop acts as compensatory mechanism that aims to restore homeostasis following initial perturbation of a KE, the feedback loop will directly shape the response-response relationship between the KERs. Given interest in formally identifying these positive or negative feedback, it is recommended that a graphical annotation (page 44) indicating a positive or negative feedback loop is involved in a particular upstream to downstream KE transition (KER) be added to the graphical representation, and that details be provided in this subsection of the KER description (see pages 44-45 of the User Handbook).  More help

Domain of Applicability

As for the KEs, there is also a free-text section of the KER description that the developer can use to explain his/her rationale for the structured terms selected with regard to taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability, or provide a more generalizable or nuanced description of the applicability domain than may be feasible using standardized terms. More help

Empirical evidence comes from in vivo studies in rats (Wu F et al., 2012; Davidson et al., 1978), in vitro studies using thyroid follicular rat cells (Spitzweg et al., 1999; Sue et al., 2012) and porcine thyroid follicles (Sugawara et al., 1999), and human epidemiological studies (Steinmaus et al., 2016b; Horton et al., 2015; Brechner et al., 2000)

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KER description using the appropriate format. Ideally, the list of references should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (OECD, 2015). More help

Brechner RJ, Parkhurst GD, Humble WO, Brown MB, Herman WH. (2000). Ammonium perchlorate contamination of Colorado River drinking water is associated with abnormal thyroid function in newborns in Arizona. J Occup Environ Med. Aug;42(8):777-82.

Caldwell KL, Jones R, Hollowell JG. (2005). Urinary iodine concentration: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002. Thyroid., 15:692–699.

Charnley G. (2008) Perchlorate: overview of risks and regulation. Food Chem Toxicol. 46(7):2307-15 (Review).

Charatcharoenwitthaya N, Ongphiphadhanakul B, Pearce EN, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A, He X, Chailurkit L, Braverman LE (2014). The association between perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant Thai women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul;99(7):2365-71.

Dai G, Levy O, Carrasco N. (1996). Cloning and characterization of the thyroid iodide transporter. Nature;379:458–460.

Davidson, B., Soodak, M., Neary, J.T., Strout, H.V., and Kieffer, J.D. (1978). The irreversible inactivation of thyroid peroxidase by methylmercaptoimidazole, thiouracil, and propylthiouracil in vitro and its relationship to in vivo findings. Endocrinology 103:871–882.

de Benoist B, Andersson M, Takkouche B, et al. (2003).Prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide. Lancet,  362:1859–1860.

De Groef B, Decallonne BR, Van der Geyten S, Darras VM, Bouillon R. (2006). Perchlorate versus other environmental sodium/iodide symporter inhibitors: potential thyroid-related health effects. Europ J Endocr. 155:17-25.

Gilbert ME, McLanahan ED, Hedge J, Crofton KM, Fisher JW, Valentín-Blasini L, Blount BC (2011). Marginal iodide deficiency and thyroid function: dose-response analysis for quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling. Toxicology. Apr 28;283(1):41-8.

Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Hannon WH, et al.(1998).  Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trend and public health implications: iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and III (1971-1974 and 1988-1994). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.,  83:3401–3408.

Horton MK, Blount BC, Valentin-Blasini L, Wapner R, Whyatt R, Gennings C, Factor-Litvak P. (2015). CO-occurring exposure to perchlorate, nitrate and thiocyanate alters thyroid function in healthy pregnant women. Environ Res. Nov;143(Pt A):1-9.

Jones PA, Pendlington RU, Earl LK, Sharma RK, Barrat MD. (1996). In vitro investigations of the direct effects of complex anions on thyroidal iodide uptake: identification of novel inhibitors. Toxicol. In Vitro. 10: 149-160.

Kleiman DA, Buitrago D, Crowley MJ, Beninato T, Veach AJ, Zanzonico PB, Jin M, Fahey TJ 3rd, Zarnegar R. (2013). Thyroid stimulating hormone increases iodine uptake by thyroid cancer cells during BRAF silencing. J Surg Res. Jun 1;182(1):85-93.

Lazarus JH, Delange F. (2004). Prevalence of iodine deficiency worldwide. Lancet, 363:901-910.

Lumen A, George NI (2017). Evaluation of the risk of perchlorate exposure in a population of late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Application of probabilistic biologically-based dose response modeling. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017 May 1;322:9-14.

McMullen J, Ghassabian A, Kohn B, Trasande L (2017). Identifying Subpopulations Vulnerable to the Thyroid-Blocking Effects of Perchlorate and Thiocyanate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul 1;102(7):2637-2645.

Moog N.K., Entringer S., Heim Ch., Wadhwa PD., Kathmann N., Buss C. (2017).  Influence of maternal thyroid hormones during gestation on fetal  brain development. Neuroscience, 342: 68–100.

Pearce EN, Lazarus JH, Smyth PP, He X, Dall'amico D, Parkes AB, Burns R, Smith DF, Maina A, Bestwick JP, Jooman M, Leung AM, Braverman LE. (2010). Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul;95(7):3207-15.

Riesco-Eizaguirre G, Rodríguez I, De la Vieja A, Costamagna E, Carrasco N, Nistal M, Santisteban P. (2009). The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. Nov 1;69(21):8317-25.

Spitzweg C, Morris JC. (2010). Genetics and phenomics of hypothyroidism and goiter due to NIS mutations. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 322: 56-63.

Spitzweg C, Joba W, Morris JC, Heufelder AE. (1999). Regulation of sodium iodide symporter gene expression in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Thyroid. Aug;9(8):821-30.

Steinmaus CM. (2016a). Perchlorate in Water Supplies: Sources, Exposures, and Health Effects. Curr Environ Health Rep. Jun;3(2):136-43.

Steinmaus C, Pearl M, Kharrazi M, Blount BC, Miller MD, Pearce EN, Valentin-Blasini L, DeLorenze G, Hoofnagle AN, Liaw J. (2016b). Thyroid Hormones and Moderate Exposure to Perchlorate during Pregnancy in Women in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect. Jun;124(6):861-7.

Sue M, Akama T, Kawashima A, Nakamura H, Hara T, Tanigawa K, Wu H, Yoshihara A, Ishido Y, Hiroi N, Yoshino G, Kohn LD, Ishii N, Suzuki K.(2012). Propylthiouracil increases sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and iodide uptake in rat thyroid cells in the absence of TSH. Thyroid. 2012 Aug;22(8):844-52.

Sugawara M, Sugawara Y, Wen K. (1999). Methimazole and propylthiouracil increase cellular thyroid peroxidase activity and thyroid peroxidase mRNA in cultured porcine thyroid follicles. Thyroid. May;9(5):513-8.

Szkudlinski MW, Fremont V, Ronin C, Weintraub BD. (2002). Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor structure-function relationships. Physiological Reviews. 82 (2): 473–502.

Tarone RE, Lipworth L, McLaughlin JK. (2010). The epidemiology of environmental perchlorate exposure and thyroid function: a comprehensive review. J Occup Environ Med. Jun;52(6):653-60.

Taurog A. 2005. Hormone synthesis. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds). Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 47–81.

Téllez Téllez R, Michaud Chacón P, Reyes Abarca C, Blount BC, Van Landingham CB, Crump KS, Gibbs JP. (2005). Long-term environmental exposure to perchlorate through drinking water and thyroid function during pregnancy and the neonatal period. Thyroid, Sep;15(9):963-75.

Tonacchera M, Pinchera A, Dimida A, Ferrarini E, Agretti P, Vitti P, Santini F, Crump K, Gibbs J. (2004). Relative potencies and additivity of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide on the inhibition of radioactive iodide uptake by the human sodium iodide symporter. Thyroid, Dec;14(12):1012-9.

Waltz F, Pillette L, Ambroise Y. (2010). A nonradioactive iodide uptake assay for sodium iodide symporter function. Anal Biochem. 396:91-95.

Wu F, Zhou X, Zhang R, Pan M, Peng KL. (2012). The effects of ammonium perchlorate on thyroid homeostasis and thyroid-specific gene expression in rat. Environ Toxicol. Aug;27(8):445-52.

Wu Y, Beland FA1, Fang JL. (2016). Effect of triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, and bisphenol A on the iodide uptake, thyroid peroxidase activity, and expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Toxicol In Vitro. Apr;32:310-9.