This Event is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA license. This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.

Event: 277

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Thyroid hormone synthesis, Decreased

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
TH synthesis, Decreased
Explore in a Third Party Tool

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
thyroid follicular cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
thyroid gland

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
thyroid hormone generation thyroid hormone decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
TPO Inhibition and Altered Neurodevelopment KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
NIS and Neurodevelopment KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Not under active development
Kidney dysfunction MolecularInitiatingEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
NIS and Cognitive Dysfunction KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
NIS inhibition and learning and memory impairment KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
TPOi anterior swim bladder KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome WPHA/WNT Endorsed
TPO inhib alters metamorphosis KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
NIS inhib alters metamorphosis KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
IYD inhib alters metamorphosis KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Pendrin inhib alters metamorphosis KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
DUOX inhib alters metamorphosis KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
TPO inhibition and impaired fertility KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
TPOi retinal layer structure KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for citation & comment Under Review
TPOi eye size KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
TPOi photoreceptor patterning KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Thyroid peroxidase- follicular adenoma/carcinoma KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Iodide pump inhibition- follicular adenoma/carcinoma KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
TPO inhibition, thyroid, heterotopia, developmental neurotoxicity KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Succinate dehydrogenase inhibition leading to increased insulin resistance KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AhR activation in the thyroid leading to Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
Xenopus laevis Xenopus laevis Moderate NCBI
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Moderate NCBI
Sus scrofa Sus scrofa High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Male High
Female High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

The thyroid hormones (TH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyrosine-based hormones. Synthesis of THs is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binding to its receptor and thyroidal availability of iodine via the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Other proteins contributing to TH production in the thyroid gland, including thyroperoxidase (TPO), dual oxidase enzymes (DUOX), and the transport protein pendrin are also necessary for iodothyronine production (Zoeller et al., 2007).

The production of THs in the thyroid gland and resulting serum concentrations are controlled by a negatively regulated feedback mechanism. Decreased T4 and T3 serum concentrations activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis which upregulates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that acts to increase production of additional THs (Zoeller and Tan, 2007). This regulatory system includes: 1) the hypothalamic secretion of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); 2) the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the anterior pituitary; 3) hormonal transport by the plasma binding proteins; 4) cellular uptake mechanisms at the tissue level; 5) intracellular control of TH concentrations by deiodinating mechanisms; 6) transcriptional function of the nuclear TH receptor; and 7) in the fetus, the transplacental passage of T4 and T3 (Zoeller et al., 2007).

TRH and the TSH primarily regulate the production of T4, often considered a “pro-hormone,” and to a lesser extent of T3, the transcriptionally active TH. Most of the hormone released from the thyroid gland into circulation is in the form of T4, while peripheral deiodination of T4 is responsible for the majority of circulating T3. Outer ring deiodination of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by the deiodinases 1 and 2 (DIO1 and DIO2), with DIO1 expressed mainly in liver and kidney, and DIO2 expressed in several tissues including the brain (Bianco et al., 2006). Conversion of T4 to T3 takes place mainly in the liver and kidney, but also in other target organs such as in the brain, the anterior pituitary, brown adipose tissue, thyroid and skeletal muscle (Gereben et al., 2008; Larsen, 2009). 

In mammals, most evidence for the ontogeny of TH synthesis comes from measurements of serum hormone concentrations. And, importantly, the impact of xenobiotics on fetal hormones must include the influence of the maternal compartment since a majority of fetal THs are derived from maternal blood early in fetal life, with a transition during mid-late gestation to fetal production of THs that is still supplemented by maternal THs. In humans, THs can be found in the fetus as early as gestational weeks 10-12, and concentations rise continuously until birth. At term, fetal T4 is similar to maternal levels, but T3 remains 2-3 fold lower than maternal levels. In rats, THs can be detected in the fetus as early as the second gestational week, but fetal synthesis does not start until gestational day 17 with birth at gestational day 22-23. Maternal THs continue to supplement fetal production until parturition. (see Howdeshell, 2002; Santisteban and Bernal, 2005 for review). Due to the maternal factor, the life stage specific impact of TPO inhibition after exposure to environmental chemicals is complex (Ramhoj et al., 2022).

Decreased TH synthesis in the thyroid gland may result from several possible molecular-initiating events (MIEs) including: 1) Disruption of key catalytic enzymes or cofactors needed for TH synthesis, including TPO, NIS, or dietary iodine insufficiency. Theoretically, decreased synthesis of Tg could also affect TH production (Kessler et al., 2008; Yi et al., 1997). Mutations in genes that encode requisite proteins in the thyroid may also lead to impaired TH synthesis, including mutations in pendrin associated with Pendred Syndrome (Dossena et al., 2011), mutations in TPO and Tg (Huang and Jap 2015), and mutations in NIS (Spitzweg and Morris, 2010). 2) Decreased TH synthesis in cases of clinical hypothyroidism may be due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis or other forms of thyroiditis, or physical destruction of the thyroid gland as in radioablation or surgical treatment of thyroid lymphoma. 3) It is possible that TH synthesis may also be reduced subsequent to disruption of the negative feedback mechanism governing TH homeostasis, e.g. pituitary gland dysfunction may result in a decreased TSH signal with concomitant T3 and T4 decreases. 4) More rarely, hypothalamic dysfunction can result in decreased TH synthesis. 

Increased fetal TH levels are also possible. Maternal Graves disease, which results in fetal thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism and increased serum T4 levels), has been successfully treated by maternal administration of TPO inhibitors (c.f., Sato et al., 2014).  

It should be noted that different species and different life stages store different amounts of TH precursors and iodine within the thyroid gland. Thus, decreased TH synthesis via transient iodine insufficiency or inhibition of TPO may not affect TH release from the thyroid gland until depletion of stored iodinated Tg. Adult humans may store sufficient Tg-DIT residues to serve for several months to a year of TH demand (Greer et al., 2002; Zoeller, 2004). Neonates and infants have a much more limited supply of less than a week.

While the TH system is highly conserved across vertebrates, there are some taxon-specific considerations.

Zebrafish and fathead minnows are oviparous fish species in which maternal THs are transferred to the eggs and regulate early embryonic developmental processes during external (versus intra-uterine in mammals) development (Power et al., 2001; Campinho et al., 2014; Ruuskanen and Hsu, 2018) until embryonic TH synthesis is initiated. Maternal transfer of THs to the eggs has been demonstrated in zebrafish (Walpita et al., 2007; Chang et al., 2012) and fathead minnows (Crane et al., 2004; Nelson et al., 2016).

Decreases in TH synthesis can only occur after initiation of embryonic TH synthesis. The components of the TH system responsible for TH synthesis are highly conserved across vertebrates and therefore interference with the same molecular targets compared to mammals can lead to decreased TH synthesis (TPO, NIS, etc.) in fish. Endogenous transcription profiles of thyroid-related genes in zebrafish and fathead minnow showed that mRNA coding for these genes is also maternally transferred and increasing expression of most transcripts during hatching and embryo-larval transition indicates a fully functional HPT axis in larvae (Vergauwen et al., 2018). Although the HPT axis is highly conserved, there are some differences between fish and mammals (Blanton and Specker, 2007; Deal and Volkoff, 2020). For example, in fish, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) often plays a more important role in regulating thyrotropin (TSH) secretion by the pituitary and thus TH synthesis compared to TSH-releasing hormone (TRH). Also, in most fish species thyroid follicles are more diffusely located in the pharyngeal region rather than encapsulated in a gland.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Decreased TH synthesis is often implied by measurement of TPO and NIS inhibition measured clinically and in laboratory models as these enzymes are essential for TH synthesis. Rarely is decreased TH synthesis measured directly, but rather the impact of chemicals on the quantity of T4 produced in the thyroid gland, or the amount of T4 present in serum is used as a marker of decreased T4 release from the thyroid gland (e.g., Romaldini et al., 1988). Methods used to assess TH synthesis include, incorporation of radiolabeled tracer compounds, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, and analytical detection.   

Recently, amphibian thyroid explant cultures have been used to demonstrate direct effects of chemicals on TH synthesis, as this model contains all necessary synthesis enzymes including TPO and NIS (Hornung et al., 2010). For this work THs was measured by HPLC/ICP-mass spectometry. Decreased TH synthesis and release, using T4 release as the endpoint, has been shown for thiouracil antihyperthyroidism drugs including MMI, PTU, and the NIS inhibitor perchlorate (Hornung et al., 2010).

Techniques for in vivo analysis of TH system disruption among other drug-related effects in fish were reviewed by Raldua and Piña (2014). TIQDT (Thyroxine-immunofluorescence quantitative disruption test) is a method that provides an immunofluorescent based estimate of thyroxine in the gland of zebrafish (Raldua and Babin, 2009; Thienpont et al., 2011; Jomaa et al., 2014; Rehberger et al., 2018).  Thienpont used this method with ~25 xenobiotics (e.g., amitrole, perchlorate, methimazole, PTU, DDT, PCBs). The method detected changes for all chemicals known to directly impact TH synthesis in the thyroid gland (e.g., NIS and TPO inhibitors), but not those that upregulate hepatic catabolism of T4. Rehberger et al. (2018) updated the method to enable simultaneous semi-quantitative visualization of intrafollicular T3 and T4 levels. Most often, whole body TH level measurements in fish early life stages are used as indirect evidence of decreased TH synthesis (Nelson et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2020). Analytical determination of TH levels by LC-MS is becoming increasingly available (Hornung et al., 2015).

More recently, transgenic zebrafish with fluorescent thyroid follicles are being used to visualize the compensatory proliferation of the thyroid follicles following inhibition of TH synthesis among others (Opitz et al., 2012).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Taxonomic: This KE is plausibly applicable across vertebrates. Decreased TH synthesis resulting from TPO or NIS inhibition is conserved across vertebrate taxa, with in vivo evidence from humans, rats, amphibians, some fish species, and birds, and in vitro evidence from rat and porcine microsomes. Indeed, TPO and NIS mutations result in congenital hypothyroidism in humans (Bakker et al., 2000; Spitzweg and Morris, 2010), demonstrating the essentiality of TPO and NIS function toward maintaining euthyroid status. Though decreased serum T4 is used as a surrogate measure to indicate chemical-mediated decreases in TH synthesis, clinical and veterinary management of hyperthyroidism and Graves’ disease using propylthiouracil and methimazole, known to decrease TH synthesis, indicates strong evidence for chemical inhibition of TPO (Zoeller and Crofton, 2005).

Life stage: Applicability to certain life stages may depend on the species and their dependence on maternally transferred THs during the earliest phases of development. The earliest life stages of teleost fish (e.g., fathead minnow, zebrafish) rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). In externally developing fish species, decreases in TH synthesis can only occur after initiation of embryonic TH synthesis. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. TPO inhibition in a homozygous knockout line abolished the T4 production in thyroid follicles of mutant zebrafish with phenotypic abnormalities occurring from 20 dpf onwards but not before 10 dpf (Fang et al., 2022). Therefore, it is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and thus when exactly this process becomes sensitive to disruption. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body TH levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It currently remains unclear when exactly embryonic TH production is initiated in zebrafish.

Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. THs are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of TH levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in TH levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Bakker B, Bikker H, Vulsma T, de Randamie JS, Wiedijk BM, De Vijlder JJ. 2000. Two decades of screening for congenital hypothyroidism in The Netherlands: TPO gene mutations in total iodide organification defects (an update). The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism.  85:3708-3712.

Bianco AC, Kim BW. (2006). Deiodinases: implications of the local control of thyroid hormone action. J Clin Invest. 116: 2571–2579.

Blanton ML, Specker JL. 2007. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (hpt) axis in fish and its role in fish development and reproduction. Crit Rev Toxicol. 37(1-2):97-115.

Campinho MA, Saraiva J, Florindo C, Power DM. 2014. Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for neural development in zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology. 28(7):1136-1149.

Chang J, Wang M, Gui W, Zhao Y, Yu L, Zhu G. 2012. Changes in thyroid hormone levels during zebrafish development. Zoological Science. 29(3):181-184.

Crane HM, Pickford DB, Hutchinson TH, Brown JA. 2004. Developmental changes of thyroid hormones in the fathead minnow, pimephales promelas. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 139(1):55-60.

Deal CK, Volkoff H. 2020. The role of the thyroid axis in fish. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 11.

Dossena S, Nofziger C, Brownstein Z, Kanaan M, Avraham KB, Paulmichl M. (2011). Functional characterization of pendrin mutations found in the Israeli and Palestinian populations. Cell Physiol Biochem. 28: 477-484.Gereben B, Zavacki AM, Ribich S, Kim BW, Huang SA, Simonides WS, Zeöld A, Bianco AC. (2008). Cellular and molecular basis of deiodinase-regulated thyroid hormone signalling. Endocr Rev. 29:898–938.

Fang, Y., Wan, J. P., Zhang, R. J., Sun, F., Yang, L., Zhao, S. X., Dong, M., & Song, H. D. (2022). Tpo knockout in zebrafish partially recapitulates clinical manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism and reveals the involvement of TH in proper development of glucose homeostasis. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 323–324.

Gereben B, Zeöld A, Dentice M, Salvatore D, Bianco AC.  Activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone by deiodinases: local action with general consequences.  Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Feb;65(4):570-90

Greer MA, Goodman G, Pleus RC, Greer SE. Health effects assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: the dose response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodine uptake in humans. Environ Health Perspect. 2002. 110:927-937.

Hernandez-Mariano JA, Torres-Sanchez L, Bassol-Mayagoitia S, Escamilla-Nunez M, Cebrian ME, Villeda-Gutierrez EA, Lopez-Rodriguez G, Felix-Arellano EE, Blanco-Munoz J. 2017. Effect of exposure to p,p '-dde during the first half of pregnancy in the maternal thyroid profile of female residents in a mexican floriculture area. Environmental Research. 156:597-604.

Hornung MW, Degitz SJ, Korte LM, Olson JM, Kosian PA, Linnum AL, Tietge JE. 2010. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci 118:42-51.

Hornung MW, Kosian PA, Haselman JT, Korte JJ, Challis K, Macherla C, Nevalainen E, Degitz SJ. 2015. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo determination of thyroid hormone modulating activity of benzothiazoles. Toxicological Sciences. 146(2):254-264.

Howdeshell KL. 2002. A model of the development of the brain as a construct of the thyroid system. Environ Health Perspect. 110 Suppl 3:337-48.

Huang CJ and Jap TS. 2015. A systematic review of genetic studies of thyroid disorders in Taiwan. J Chin Med Assoc. 78: 145-153.

Jomaa B, Hermsen SAB, Kessels MY, van den Berg JHJ, Peijnenburg AACM, Aarts JMMJG, Piersma AH, Rietjens IMCM. 2014. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test. Altex-Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. 31(3):303-317.

Kessler J, Obinger C, Eales G. Factors influencing the study of peroxidase-generated iodine species and implications for thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroid. 2008 Jul;18(7):769-74. doi: 10.1089/thy.2007.0310

Larsen PR. (2009). Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in human skeletal muscle: new insights into its physiological role and regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 94:1893-1895.

Liu XS, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu SH, Ji K, Choi K. 2019. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (tdcpp) and triphenyl phosphate (tpp) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 170:25-32.

Nelson K, Schroeder A, Ankley G, Blackwell B, Blanksma C, Degitz S, Flynn K, Jensen K, Johnson R, Kahl M et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part i: Fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:192-203.

Opitz R, Maquet E, Huisken J, Antonica F, Trubiroha A, Pottier G, Janssens V, Costagliola S. 2012. Transgenic zebrafish illuminate the dynamics of thyroid morphogenesis and its relationship to cardiovascular development. Developmental Biology. 372(2):203-216.

Opitz R, Maquet E, Zoenen M, Dadhich R, Costagliola S. 2011. Tsh receptor function is required for normal thyroid differentiation in zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology. 25(9):1579-1599.

Power DM, Llewellyn L, Faustino M, Nowell MA, Bjornsson BT, Einarsdottir IE, Canario AV, Sweeney GE. 2001. Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 130(4):447-459.

Raldua D, Babin PJ. 2009. Simple, rapid zebrafish larva bioassay for assessing the potential of chemical pollutants and drugs to disrupt thyroid gland function. Environmental Science & Technology. 43(17):6844-6850.

Raldua D, Pina B. 2014. In vivo zebrafish assays for analyzing drug toxicity. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. 10(5):685-697.

Ramhoj, L., Svingen, T., Fradrich, C., Rijntjes, E., Wirth, E.K., Pedersen, K., Kohrle, J., Axelstad, M., 2022. Perinatal exposure to the thyroperoxidase inhibitors methimazole and amitrole perturbs thyroid hormone system signaling and alters motor activity in rat offspring. Toxicology Letters 354, 44-55.

Rehberger K, Baumann L, Hecker M, Braunbeck T. 2018. Intrafollicular thyroid hormone staining in whole-mount zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos for the detection of thyroid hormone synthesis disruption. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 44(3):997-1010.

Romaldini JH, Farah CS, Werner RS, Dall'Antonia Júnior RP, Camargo RS. 1988.  "In vitro" study on release of cyclic AMP and thyroid hormone in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.  Horm Metab Res.20:510-2.

Ruuskanen S, Hsu BY. 2018. Maternal thyroid hormones: An unexplored mechanism underlying maternal effects in an ecological framework. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 91(3):904-916.

Santisteban P, Bernal J. Thyroid development and effect on the nervous system. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2005 Aug;6(3):217-28.

Spitzweg C, Morris JC. 2010. Genetics and phenomics of hypothyroidism and goiter due to NIS mutations. Molecular and cellular endocrinology. 322:56-63.

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Blackwell BR, Anldey GT, Villeneuve DL, Knapen D. 2020. Effect of thyroperoxidase and deiodinase inhibition on anterior swim bladder inflation in the zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 54(10):6213-6223.

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Schroeder A, Maho W, Blackwell B, Witters H, Blust R, Ankley G, Covaci A, Villeneuve D et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part ii: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:204-217.

Thienpont B, Tingaud-Sequeira A, Prats E, Barata C, Babin PJ, Raldúa D.  Zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable vertebrate model for screening chemicals that impair thyroid hormone synthesis.  Environ Sci Technol. 2011. 45(17):7525-32.

Vergauwen L, Cavallin JE, Ankley GT, Bars C, Gabriels IJ, Michiels EDG, Fitzpatrick KR, Periz-Stanacev J, Randolph EC, Robinson SL et al. 2018. Gene transcription ontogeny of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis development in early-life stage fathead minnow and zebrafish. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 266:87-100.

Wabukebunoti MAN, Firling CE. 1983. The prehatching development of the thyroid-gland of the fathead minnow, pimephales-promelas (rafinesque). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 49(2):320-331.

Walpita CN, Van der Geyten S, Rurangwa E, Darras VM. 2007. The effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine supplementation on zebrafish (danio rerio) embryonic development and expression of iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptors. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 152(2-3):206-214.

Walter KM, Miller GW, Chen XP, Yaghoobi B, Puschner B, Lein PJ. 2019. Effects of thyroid hormone disruption on the ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes in developing zebrafish (danio rerio). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 272:20-32.

Webster GM, Venners SA, Mattman A, Martin JW. 2014. Associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (pfass) and maternal thyroid hormones in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. Environmental Research. 133:338-347.

Yi X, Yamamoto K, Shu L, Katoh R, Kawaoi A. Effects of Propyithiouracil (PTU) Administration on the Synthesis and Secretion of Thyroglobulin in the Rat Thyroid Gland: A Quantitative Immuno-electron Microscopic Study Using Immunogold Technique. Endocr Pathol. 1997 Winter;8(4):315-325.

Zoeller RT, Crofton KM. 2005.  Mode of action: developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency--neurological abnormalities resulting from exposure to propylthiouracil. Crit Rev Toxicol. 35:771-81

Zoeller RT, Tan SW, Tyl RW. 2007. General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Critical reviews in toxicology.  37:11-53.

Zoeller RT.  Interspecies differences in susceptibility to perturbation of thyroid hormone homeostasis requires a definition of "sensitivity" that is informative for risk analysis. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;40(3):380.