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Key Event Title
Thyroid hormone synthesis, Decreased
|Level of Biological Organization|
|thyroid follicular cell|
Key Event Components
|thyroid hormone generation||thyroid hormone||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|TPO Inhibition and Altered Neurodevelopment||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
|NIS and Neurodevelopment||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Not under active development|
|Kidney dysfunction||MolecularInitiatingEvent||Arthur Author (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|NIS and Cognitive Dysfunction||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|NIS inhibition and learning and memory impairment||KeyEvent||Arthur Author (send email)||Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|TPO inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|NIS inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Arthur Author (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|IYD inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Arthur Author (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Pendrin inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Cataia Ives (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|DUOX inhib alters metamorphosis||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|TPO inhibition and impaired fertility||KeyEvent||Cataia Ives (send email)||Open for comment. Do not cite||Under Development|
|TPOi retinal layer structure||KeyEvent||Allie Always (send email)||Open for comment. Do not cite|
|TPOi eye size||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|TPOi photoreceptor patterning||KeyEvent||Cataia Ives (send email)||Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite|
|Thyroid peroxidase- follicular adenoma/carcinoma||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|Iodide pump inhibition- follicular adenoma/carcinoma||KeyEvent||Allie Always (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
The thyroid hormones (TH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyrosine-based hormones. Synthesis of THs is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) binding to its receptor and thyroidal availability of iodine via the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Other proteins contributing to TH production in the thyroid gland, including thyroperoxidase (TPO), dual oxidase enzymes (DUOX), and pendrin are also necessary for iodothyronine production (Zoeller et al., 2007).
The production of THs in the thyroid gland and resulting serum concentrations are controlled by a negatively regulated feedback mechanism. Decreased T4 and T3 serum concentrations activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis which upregulates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that acts to increase production of additional THs (Zoeller and Tan, 2007). This regulatory system includes: 1) the hypothalamic secretion of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); 2) the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the anterior pituitary; 3) hormonal transport by the plasma binding proteins; 4) cellular uptake mechanisms at the tissue level; 5) intracellular control of TH concentrations by deiodinating mechanisms; 6) transcriptional function of the nuclear TH receptor; and 7) in the fetus, the transplacental passage of T4 and T3 (Zoeller et al., 2007).
TRH and the TSH primarily regulate the production of T4, often considered a “pro-hormone,” and to a lesser extent of T3, the transcriptionally active TH. Most of the hormone released from the thyroid gland into circulation is in the form of T4, while peripheral deiodination of T4 is responsible for the majority of circulating T3. Outer ring deiodination of T4 to T3 is catalyzed by the deiodinases 1 and 2 (DIO1 and DIO2), with DIO1 expressed mainly in liver and kidney, and DIO2 expressed in several tissues including the brain (Bianco et al., 2006). Conversion of T4 to T3 takes place mainly in the liver and kidney, but also in other target organs such as in the brain, the anterior pituitary, brown adipose tissue, thyroid and skeletal muscle (Gereben et al., 2008; Larsen, 2009).
In mammals, most evidence for the ontogeny of TH synthesis comes from measurements of serum hormone concentrations. And, importantly, the impact of xenobiotics on fetal hormones must include the influence of the maternal compartment since a majority of fetal THs are derived from maternal blood early in fetal life, with a transition during mid-late gestation to fetal production of THs that is still supplemented by maternal THs. In humans, THs can be found in the fetus as early as gestational weeks 10-12, and concentrations rise continuously until birth. At term, fetal T4 is similar to maternal levels, but T3 remains 2-3 fold lower than maternal levels. In rats, THs can be detected in the fetus as early as the second gestational week, but fetal synthesis does not start until gestational day 17 with birth at gestational day 22-23. Maternal THs continue to supplement fetal production until parturition (see Howdeshell, 2002; Santisteban and Bernal, 2005 for review). The ontogeny of TPO inhibition during development by environmental chemicals represents a data gap.
Decreased TH synthesis in the thyroid gland may result from several possible molecular-initiating events (MIEs) including: 1) Disruption of key catalytic enzymes or cofactors needed for TH synthesis, including TPO, NIS, or dietary iodine insufficiency. Theoretically, decreased synthesis of Tg could also affect TH production (Kessler et al., 2008; Yi et al., 1997). Mutations in genes that encode requisite proteins in the thyroid may also lead to impaired TH synthesis, including mutations in pendrin associated with Pendred Syndrome (Dossena et al., 2011), mutations in TPO and Tg (Huang and Jap 2015), and mutations in NIS (Spitzweg and Morris, 2010). 2) Decreased TH synthesis in cases of clinical hypothyroidism may be due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis or other forms of thyroiditis, or physical destruction of the thyroid gland as in radioablation or surgical treatment of thyroid lymphoma. 3) It is possible that TH synthesis may also be reduced subsequent to disruption of the negative feedback mechanism governing TH homeostasis, e.g. pituitary gland dysfunction may result in a decreased TSH signal with concomitant T3 and T4 decreases. 4) More rarely, hypothalamic dysfunction can result in decreased TH synthesis.
Increased fetal TH levels are also possible. Maternal Graves disease, which results in fetal thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism and increased serum T4 levels), has been successfully treated by maternal administration of TPO inhibitors (c.f., Sato et al., 2014).
It should be noted that different species and different life stages store different amounts of TH precursors and iodine within the thyroid gland. Thus, decreased TH synthesis via transient iodine insufficiency or inhibition of TPO may not affect TH release from the thyroid gland until depletion of stored iodinated Tg. Adult humans may store sufficient Tg-DIT residues to serve for several months to a year of TH demand (Greer et al., 2002; Zoeller, 2004). Neonates and infants have a much more limited supply of less than a week.
While the TH system is highly conserved across vertebrates, there are some taxon-specific considerations.
Zebrafish and fathead minnows are oviparous fish species in which maternal THs are transferred to the eggs and regulate early embryonic developmental processes during external (versus intra-uterine in mammals) development (Power et al., 2001; Campinho et al., 2014; Ruuskanen and Hsu, 2018) until embryonic TH synthesis is initiated. Maternal transfer of THs to the eggs has been demonstrated in zebrafish (Walpita et al., 2007; Chang et al., 2012) and fathead minnows (Crane et al., 2004; Nelson et al., 2016).
Decreases in TH synthesis can only occur after initiation of embryonic TH synthesis. The components of the TH system responsible for TH synthesis are highly conserved across vertebrates and therefore interference with the same molecular targets compared to mammals can lead to decreased TH synthesis (TPO, NIS, etc.) in fish. Endogenous transcription profiles of thyroid-related genes in zebrafish and fathead minnow showed that mRNA coding for these genes is also maternally transferred and increasing expression of most transcripts during hatching and embryo-larval transition indicates a fully functional HPT axis in larvae (Vergauwen et al., 2018). Although the HPT axis is highly conserved, there are some differences between fish and mammals (Blanton and Specker, 2007; Deal and Volkoff, 2020). For example, in fish, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) often plays a more important role in regulating thyrotropin (TSH) secretion by the pituitary and thus TH synthesis compared to TSH-releasing hormone (TRH). Also, in most fish species thyroid follicles are more diffusely located in the pharyngeal region rather than encapsulated in a gland.
How It Is Measured or Detected
Decreased TH synthesis is often implied by measurement of TPO and NIS inhibition measured clinically and in laboratory models as these enzymes are essential for TH synthesis. Rarely is decreased TH synthesis measured directly, but rather the impact of chemicals on the quantity of T4 produced in the thyroid gland, or the amount of T4 present in serum is used as a marker of decreased T4 release from the thyroid gland (e.g., Romaldini et al., 1988). Methods used to assess TH synthesis include, incorporation of radiolabeled tracer compounds, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, and analytical detection.
Recently, amphibian thyroid explant cultures have been used to demonstrate direct effects of chemicals on TH synthesis, as this model contains all necessary synthesis enzymes including TPO and NIS (Hornung et al., 2010). For this work THs was measured by HPLC/ICP-mass spectometry. Decreased TH synthesis and release, using T4 release as the endpoint, has been shown for thiouracil antihyperthyroidism drugs including MMI, PTU, and the NIS inhibitor perchlorate (Hornung et al., 2010).
Techniques for in vivo analysis of TH system disruption among other drug-related effects in fish were reviewed by Raldua and Piña (2014). TIQDT (Thyroxine-immunofluorescence quantitative disruption test) is a method that provides an immunofluorescent based estimate of thyroxine in the gland of zebrafish (Raldua and Babin, 2009; Thienpont et al., 2011; Jomaa et al., 2014; Rehberger et al., 2018). Thienpont used this method with ~25 xenobiotics (e.g., amitrole, perchlorate, methimazole, PTU, DDT, PCBs). The method detected changes for all chemicals known to directly impact TH synthesis in the thyroid gland (e.g., NIS and TPO inhibitors), but not those that upregulate hepatic catabolism of T4. Rehberger et al. (2018) updated the method to enable simultaneous semi-quantitative visualization of intrafollicular T3 and T4 levels. Most often, whole body TH level measurements in fish early life stages are used as indirect evidence of decreased TH synthesis (Nelson et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2016; Stinckens et al., 2020). Analytical determination of TH levels by LC-MS is becoming increasingly available (Hornung et al., 2015).
More recently, transgenic zebrafish with fluorescent thyroid follicles are being used to visualize the compensatory proliferation of the thyroid follicles following inhibition of TH synthesis among others (Opitz et al., 2012).
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: This KE is plausibly applicable across vertebrates. Decreased TH synthesis resulting from TPO or NIS inhibition is conserved across vertebrate taxa, with in vivo evidence from humans, rats, amphibians, some fish species, and birds, and in vitro evidence from rat and porcine microsomes. Indeed, TPO and NIS mutations result in congenital hypothyroidism in humans (Bakker et al., 2000; Spitzweg and Morris, 2010), demonstrating the essentiality of TPO and NIS function toward maintaining euthyroid status. Though decreased serum T4 is used as a surrogate measure to indicate chemical-mediated decreases in TH synthesis, clinical and veterinary management of hyperthyroidism and Grave's disease using propylthiouracil and methimazole, known to decrease TH synthesis, indicates strong evidence for chemical inhibition of TPO (Zoeller and Crofton, 2005).
Life stage: Applicability to certain life stages may depend on the species and their dependence on maternally transferred THs during the earliest phases of development. The earliest life stages of teleost fish (e.g., fathead minnow, zebrafish) rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). In externally developing fish species, decreases in TH synthesis can only occur after initiation of embryonic TH synthesis. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. Therefore, it is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and thus when exactly this process becomes sensitive to disruption. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body TH levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It currently remains unclear when exactly embryonic TH production is initiated in zebrafish.
Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. THs are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of TH levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in TH levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.
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