AOPs Including This Stressor
Events Including This Stressor
Inhibition of RALDH2 causes reduced all-trans retinoic acid levels, leading to transposition of the great arteries
Teratogenic levels of Vitamin A induced aortic arch artery anomalies, conotruncal septum anomalies and OFT alignment perturbations in rodents (Colbert, 2002; Kalter & Warkany, 1961; Shenefelt, 1972). In vitro, NC cultures exposed to retinoic acid showed dose-dependent attenuation of outgrowth from NC fold explant and in vivo retinoic acid treatment of mice showed the same when the NCs were later explanted (Colbert, 2002; J. Li et al., 2001; Salvarezza & Rovasio, 1997). In retinoic acid treated embryos, the NCCs migrated to the wrong direction (Colbert, 2002; Morriss-Kay et al., 1993).
Vitamin A deficiency in embryos results in heart developmental defects such as septal defects, abnormalities to the inflow and outflow tract, aortic arch abnormalities and coronary malformations in quail and rat (Dersch & Zile, 1993; Heine et al., 1985; Wilson & Warkany, 1949, 1950).