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Event: 1494

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Leukocyte recruitment/activation

Short name
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Leukocyte recruitment/activation
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Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
cell activation involved in immune response leukocyte increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
lysosomal uptake induced liver fibrosis KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite EAGMST Under Review
Increased DNA damage leading to breast cancer KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
RONS leading to breast cancer KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens NCBI
Vertebrates Vertebrates NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

The inflammatory response is the cornerstone of the body’s defense mechanism against bacterial and viral pathogens, as well as physical-, chemical- and environmental-mediated tissue and organ damage. Leucocyte recruitment at the site of pathogen evasion or sterile tissue injury is a critical adaptation for the preservation of tissue integrity. Neutrophils are the cell population that acutely responds to the alterations of inflammatory micro-environment. Neutrophil infiltration takes place within 6-8 hours from the initiation of the inflammatory process and is followed by the recruitment of other cell populations, like monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, which either promote or drive the resolution of inflammation. Leukocyte infiltration into sites of infection or sterile inflammation is a tightly regulated process that follows a sequence of adhesive events, termed as leukocyte adhesion cascade. One can broadly generalize that most leukocytes follow a similar multi-step cascade in the peripheral (non-lymphoid) vasculature with some exceptions. Accordingly, an updated adhesion cascade in postcapillary venules involves free-flowing leukocytes initial attachment or tethering and slow velocity rolling (step 1),stable adhesion (arrest) on endothelial cells (step 2), leukocyte flattening (step 3), and subsequent crawling on the vascular endothelium, transendothelial cell migration (TEM) between (paracellular route) or through (transcellular) the vascular endothelium (step 4), and uropod elongation to complete transmigration of postcapillary venules (step 5). The initial attachment and rolling steps are initiated by interactions of endothelial E- and P-selectins and their counterreceptors on leukocytes L-selectin (Leick et al., 2014).

Each of these steps is necessary for effective leukocyte recruitment; these steps are not phases of inflammation, but represent the sequence of events from the perspective of each leukocyte. At any given moment they all happen in parallel, involving different leukocytes in the same microvessels.

From the initial selectin-dependent leukocyte tethering to endothelial cells to the final migration of leukocytes into the sub-endothelium, this process depends on the interplay between leukocyte receptors and endothelial cell counter-receptors, as well as on the presence of endogenous inhibitors of leukocyte adhesion enabling the targeted recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissues.

To enable the infiltration of leukocytes at the site of inflammation, a series of alterations in endothelial cells and leukocytes takes place:

  • regulation of the expression of adhesion molecules in leukocytes
  • increased secretion of chemokines by endothelial cells
  • increased expression of adhesion molecules in the luminal surface of endothelial cells

(Kourtzelis and Mitroulis, 2015) (Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease 2010).

After recruitment, activation includes phenotype modification with morphologic alterations, changes in marker proteins (MHC, adhesion molecules, co-stimulatory signal), expression of mediators, enzymes, and pro-inflammatory proteins/lipids. Recruited monocytes recruited mature into macrophages with phagocytic activity and elaboration of a myriad of mediators of inflammation. The macrophage can replicate within tissues or die, including by apoptosis.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

in vivo imaging:

  • Flow cytometry (FC/FACS),
  • immunhistochemistry
  • two photon-intravital microscopy (TP-IVM) (van Grinsven et al., 2017)
  • Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy-IVM (Jenne et al., 2011)
  • Histology, increased cell numbers and altered composition

In vitro

  • transwell Migration Assay (Justus et al., 2014)
  • T-Lymphocyte & Innate Immune Cell Activation Assays
  • Leukocyte Surface Markers (Monoclonal Antibodies to Leukocyte Surface Markers)
  • Markers of leukocyte activation – protease release, ROS/RNS, NADPH oxidase (NOX), defense response - expression of anti-oxidants.
  • organs-on-a-chip (Bnam et al., 2016; Ribas et al., 2017; Wufuer et al. 2016)

REFERENCES:

Benam KH, Villenave R, Lucchesi C, Varone 1, Hubeau C, Lee HH, Alves SE, Salmon M, Ferrante TC, Weaver JC, Bahinski A, Hamilton GA, Ingber DE., Small airway-on-a-chip enables analysis of human lung inflammation and drug responses in vitro, Nat Methods. 2016 Feb;13(2):151-7.

Ribas, J., Zhang, Y. S., Pitrez, P. R., Leijten, J., Miscuglio, M., Rouwkema, J., Dokmeci, M. R., Nissan, X., Ferreira, L. and Khademhosseini, A. (2017), Organ-On-A-Chip: Biomechanical Strain Exacerbates Inflammation on a Progeria-on-a-Chip Model doi:10.1002/smll.201770087

Wufuer M, Lee G, Hur W, Jeon B, Kim BJ, Choi  TH, Lee SH, Skin-on-a-chip model simulating inflammation, edema and drug-based treatment,  Nature Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 37471 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep37471

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Kourtzelis I and Mitroulis I, Encyclopedia of Inflammatory Diseases, Leukocyte Recruitment, pp 1-9, Compendium of Inflammatory Diseases, Editors: Michael J. Parnham , Springer Basel, 2015, DOI 10.1007/978-3-0348-0620-6_177-1

Kumar, V.; Abbas, AK.; Fausto, N.; Aster, J. Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8. Elsevier; Philadelphia: 2010.

Leick M, Azcutia V, Newton G, Luscinskas FW., Leukocyte recruitment in inflammation: basic concepts and new mechanistic insights based on new models and microscopic imaging technologies, Cell Tissue Res. 2014 Mar;355(3):647-56

Nourshargh S, Alon R., Leukocyte migration into inflamed tissues., Immunity. 2014 Nov 20;41(5):694-707