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Event: 1592

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

ROS generation from photoactivated chemicals

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
ROS generation
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
ROS-mediated chemical phototoxicity MolecularInitiatingEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite EAGMST Under Review

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

In the primary event, photoreactive chemicals are excited by the absorption of photon energy.  The energy of the photoactivated chemicals transfer to oxygen and then generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O2) via type I reaction and singlet oxygen (1O2) via type II reaction, as principal intermediate species in phototoxic reaction (Foote, 1991, Onoue et al. , 2009).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

On the basis of the pathogenesis of drug-induced phototoxicity, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was proposed to evaluate the phototoxic risk of chemicals. The ROS assay can monitor generation of ROS, such as singlet oxygen and superoxide, from photoirradiated chemicals, and the ROS data can be used to evaluate the photoreactivity of chemicals (Onoue et al. , 2014, Onoue et al. , 2013, Onoue and Tsuda, 2006).  The ROS assay is a recommended approach by guidelines to evaluate the phototoxic risk of chemicals (ICH, 2014, PCPC, 2014).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Chemicals: This MIE applies to a wide range of chemicals.  The chemicals absorb photon energy from light within the range of natural sunlight (290-700 nm) (ICH, 2014, Onoue and Tsuda, 2006).

Sex: This MIE applies to both males and females. 

Life stages: The relevant life stages for this MIE are all life stages after born.

Taxonomic: This MIE mainly applies to human.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Foote CS. Definition of type I and type II photosensitized oxidation. Photochem Photobiol. 1991;54:659.

ICH. ICH Guideline S10 Guidance on Photosafety Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals.: International Council on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use; 2014.

Onoue S, Hosoi K, Toda T, Takagi H, Osaki N, Matsumoto Y, et al. Intra-/inter-laboratory validation study on reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation using two different solar simulators. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2014;28:515-23.

Onoue S, Hosoi K, Wakuri S, Iwase Y, Yamamoto T, Matsuoka N, et al. Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. 2013;33:1241-50.

Onoue S, Kawamura K, Igarashi N, Zhou Y, Fujikawa M, Yamada H, et al. Reactive oxygen species assay-based risk assessment of drug-induced phototoxicity: classification criteria and application to drug candidates. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;47:967-72.

Onoue S, Seto Y, Gandy G, Yamada S. Drug-induced phototoxicity; an early in vitro identification of phototoxic potential of new drug entities in drug discovery and development. Current drug safety. 2009;4:123-36.

Onoue S, Tsuda Y. Analytical studies on the prediction of photosensitive/phototoxic potential of pharmaceutical substances. Pharmaceutical research. 2006;23:156-64.

PCPC. PCPC 2014 safety evaluation guidelines; Chapter 7: Evaluation of Photoirritation and Photoallergy potential. Personal Care Products Council; 2014.

Seto Y, Kato M, Yamada S, Onoue S. Development of micellar reactive oxygen species assay for photosafety evaluation of poorly water-soluble chemicals. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2013;27:1838-46.