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Event: 1647

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

GSK3beta inactivation

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
GSK3beta inactivation

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
GSK3beta inactivation leads to increased mortality MolecularInitiatingEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for citation & comment


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
zebra fish Danio rerio High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

The protein encoded by gsk3b gene is a serine-threonine kinase belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is a negative regulator of glucose homeostasis and is involved in energy metabolism, inflammation, ER-stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptotic pathways. Defects in this gene have been associated with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease (GSK3B Gene - GeneCards). GSK3b has been identified within mitochondria (Hoshi et al., 1996), as well as in the cytoplasm (Anichtchik et al., 2008).

GSK3b kinase is constitutively active in resting cells and undergoes a rapid and transient inhibition in response to a number of external signals. GSK3b activity is regulated by site-specific phosphorylation. Full activity of GSK3b generally requires phosphorylation at tyrosine 216 (Tyr216), and conversely, phosphorylation at serine 9 (Ser9) inhibits GSK3b activity. Phosphorylation of Ser9 is the most common and important regulatory mechanism. Many kinases are capable of phosphorylating Ser9, including p70 S6 kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), p90Rsk (also called MAP-KAP kinase-1), protein kinase B (also called Akt), certain isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA). In opposition to the inhibitory modulation of GSK3b that occurs by serine phosphorylation, tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK3b increases  the  enzyme’s  activity (Grimes and Jope, 2001; Luo, 2012).

・Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3 beta) is inhibited by CHIR99021 (C. H. Li et al., 2017; C. C. Liu et al., 2016; Sineva & Pospelov, 2010).

・Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3 beta) is inhibited by BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3’-oxime) (Mohammed et al., 2016; Sineva & Pospelov, 2010).

・Kenpaullone is a dual inhibitor for GSK3 alpha/beta and HPK1/GCK-like kinase (Y. M. Yang et al., 2013; Yao et al., 1999).

・CHIR and BIO treatments lead to a slight upregulation of the primary transcripts of the miR-302-367 cluster and miR-181 family of miRNAs, which activate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling (Y. Wu et al., 2015).

・SB216763 inhibits GSK3beta (Naujok et al., 2014).

・TWS119 inhibits GSK3beta (Tang et al., 2018).

・CHIR98014 inhibits GSK3beta (Guerrero et al., 2014; Lian et al., 2014).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Inactivation of GSK3 beta is measured by Wnt/beta-catenin activity assay, in which the vector containing the firefly luciferase gene controlled by TCF/LEF binding sites is transfected in the cells (Naujok et al., 2014). Phosphorylation of GSK3beta at residue Ser9 leads to the inactivation of GSK3beta. Phosphorylation of GSK3 beta is measured by immunoblotting with anti-phospho-GSK3beta (Huang et al., 2019).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Phosphorylation of GSK3beta is induced, which means the inactivation of GSK3beta, in Homo sapiens (Huang et al., 2019). Evidence for this KE is also provided for zebrafish (Anichtchik et al., 2008; Wang et al. 2018)

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.


CHIR99021 inhibits GSK3beta (Wu et al., 2015) .

BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3’-oxime)

BIO (6-bromoindirubin-3’-oxime) inhibits GSK3beta (Wu et al., 2015).


Kenpaullone inhibits GSK3beta (Yang et al., 2013).


SB216763 inhibits GSK3betat (Naujok, Lentes, Diekmann, Davenport, & Lenzen, 2014).


TWS119 inhibits GSK3beta (Tang et al., 2018).


CHIR98014 inhibits GSK3beta (Guerrero et al., 2014; Lian et al., 2014).


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

Anichtchik, O. et al. (2008) ‘Loss of PINK1 function affects development and results in neurodegeneration in zebrafish’, Journal of Neuroscience, 28(33), pp. 8199–8207. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0979-08.2008

Grimes, C. A. and Jope, R. S. (2001) ‘The multifaceted roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3β in cellular signaling’, Progress in Neurobiology, 65(4), pp. 391–426. doi: 10.1016/S0301-0082(01)00011-9

GSK3B Gene - GeneCards | GSK3B Protein | GSK3B Antibody (no date). Available at: (Accessed: 3 October 2021)

Guerrero, F., Herencia, C., Almaden, Y., Martinez-Moreno, J. M., Montes de Oca, A., Rodriguez-Ortiz, M. E., . . . Munoz-Castaneda, J. R. (2014). TGF-beta prevents phosphate-induced osteogenesis through inhibition of BMP and Wnt/beta-catenin pathways. PLoS One, 9(2), e89179. Retrieved from doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089179

Hoshi, M. et al. (1996) Regulation of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by tau protein kinase I/glycogen synthase kinase 3p3 in brain, Neurobiology

Huang, J. Q., Wei, F. K., Xu, X. L., Ye, S. X., Song, J. W., Ding, P. K., . . . Gong, L. Y. (2019). SOX9 drives the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small-cell lung cancer through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. J Transl Med, 17(1), 143. Retrieved from doi:10.1186/s12967-019-1895-2

Li, C. H., Liu, C. W., Tsai, C. H., Peng, Y. J., Yang, Y. H., Liao, P. L., . . . Kang, J. J. (2017). Cytoplasmic aryl hydrocarbon receptor regulates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, accelerates vimentin degradation, and suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Arch Toxicol, 91(5), 2165-2178. Retrieved from doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1870-0

Lian, X., Bao, X., Al-Ahmad, A., Liu, J., Wu, Y., Dong, W., . . . Palecek, S. P. (2014). Efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to endothelial progenitors via small-molecule activation of WNT signaling. Stem Cell Reports, 3(5), 804-816. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.09.005

Liu, C. C., Cai, D. L., Sun, F., Wu, Z. H., Yue, B., Zhao, S. L., . . . Yan, D. W. (2016). FERMT1 mediates epithelial–mesenchymal transition to promote colon cancer metastasis via modulation of β-catenin transcriptional activity. Oncogene, 36, 1779. Retrieved from doi:10.1038/onc.2016.339 - supplementary-information

Luo, J. (2012) ‘The role of GSK3beta in the development of the central nervous system’, Front. Biol, 7(3), pp. 212–220. doi: 10.1007/s11515-012-1222-2

Mohammed, M. K., Shao, C., Wang, J., Wei, Q., Wang, X., Collier, Z., . . . Lee, M. J. (2016). Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an ever-expanding role in stem cell self-renewal, tumorigenesis and cancer chemoresistance. Genes Dis, 3(1), 11-40. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.gendis.2015.12.004

Naujok, O., Lentes, J., Diekmann, U., Davenport, C., & Lenzen, S. (2014). Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors. BMC Res Notes, 7, 273. Retrieved from doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-273

Sineva, G. S., & Pospelov, V. A. (2010). Inhibition of GSK3beta enhances both adhesive and signalling activities of beta-catenin in mouse embryonic stem cells. Biol Cell, 102(10), 549-560. Retrieved from doi:10.1042/BC20100016

Tang, Y. Y., Sheng, S. Y., Lu, C. G., Zhang, Y. Q., Zou, J. Y., Lei, Y. Y., . . . Hong, H. (2018). Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3beta Inhibitor TWS119 on Proliferation and Cytokine Production of TILs From Human Lung Cancer. J Immunother, 41(7), 319-328. Retrieved from doi:10.1097/CJI.0000000000000234

Wang, Z. et al. (2018) ‘The role of gastrulation brain homeobox 2 (gbx2) in the development of the ventral telencephalon in zebrafish embryos’, Differentiation, 99(December 2017), pp. 28–40. doi: 10.1016/j.diff.2017.12.005

Wu, Y., Liu, F., Liu, Y., Liu, X., Ai, Z., Guo, Z., & Zhang, Y. (2015). GSK3 inhibitors CHIR99021 and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime inhibit microRNA maturation in mouse embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep, 5, 8666. Retrieved from doi:10.1038/srep08666

Yang, Y. M., Gupta, S. K., Kim, K. J., Powers, B. E., Cerqueira, A., Wainger, B. J., . . . Rubin, L. L. (2013). A small molecule screen in stem-cell-derived motor neurons identifies a kinase inhibitor as a candidate therapeutic for ALS. Cell Stem Cell, 12(6), 713-726. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.04.003

Yao, Z., Zhou, G., Wang, X. S., Brown, A., Diener, K., Gan, H., & Tan, T. H. (1999). A novel human STE20-related protein kinase, HGK, that specifically activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. J Biol Chem, 274(4), 2118-2125. Retrieved from