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Event: 1682

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Disruption, Progenitor cells of second heart field

Short name
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Disruption, Progenitor cells of second heart field
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Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
TBX1 inhibition leading to congenital cardiac conotruncal anomalies KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
RALDH2 and cardiovascular developmental defects KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

The first heart field (FHF) and second heart field (SHF) can be distinguished in the cardiac crescent and reside in a horseshoe shaped form (Brade et al., 2018). The SHF cells will stay in a proliferative state until they enter the heart tube to differentiate (Brade et al., 2018). The SHF promotes heart tube elongation at the venous and arterial poles and contributes to the sub pulmonary myocardium (el Robrini et al., 2016; S. Wang & Moise, 2019). The SHF will contribute to the right ventricle and outflow tract (Carlson, 2018).

The SHF progenitors facilitate development of the outflow tract, atrium and right ventricle (S. Wang & Moise, 2019). The SHF contributes to the distal myocardium of the OFT and the mesodermal part of great vessel smooth muscles (Buckingham et al., 2005; Choudhary et al., 2009; Dyer & Kirby, 2009). The anterior heart field (AHF) within the SHF gives rise to the OFT and the right ventricle (Kelly et al., 2001; Meilhac et al., 2004; Zaffran et al., 2004). Mef2c positive cells are specific to the AHF (Dodou et al., 2004; Verzi et al., 2005). The AHF requires hedgehog (Hh) signaling from the pharyngeal endoderm for OFT septation but not for OFT elongation (Goddeeris et al., 2007).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Brade, T., Pane, L. S., Moretti, A., Chien, K. R., & Laugwitz, K.-L. (2018). Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a013847

Buckingham, M., Meilhac, S., & Zaffran, S. (2005). Building the mammalian heart from two sources of myocardial cells. Nature Reviews. Genetics, 6(11), 826–835. https://doi.org/10.1038/NRG1710

Carlson, B. M. (2018). Human Embryology and Developmental biology E-book. https://books.google.com/books?hl=nl&lr=&id=iyx6DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=carlson+human+embryology&ots=ZCgJJZr-17&sig=LXSoOfaYSNJLoFYaiiJHeqrNyw4

Choudhary, B., Zhou, J., Li, P., Thomas, S., Kaartinen, V., & Sucov, H. M. (2009). Absence of TGFbeta signaling in embryonic vascular smooth muscle leads to reduced lysyl oxidase expression, impaired elastogenesis, and aneurysm. Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000), 47(2), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1002/DVG.20466

Dodou, E., Verzi, M. P., Anderson, J. P., Xu, S. M., & Black, B. L. (2004). Mef2c is a direct transcriptional target of ISL1 and GATA factors in the anterior heart field during mouse embryonic development. Development (Cambridge, England), 131(16), 3931–3942. https://doi.org/10.1242/DEV.01256

Dyer, L. A., & Kirby, M. L. (2009). The role of secondary heart field in cardiac development. Developmental Biology, 336(2), 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.YDBIO.2009.10.009

el Robrini, N., Etchevers, H. C., Ryckebüsch, L., Faure, E., Eudes, N., Niederreither, K., Zaffran, S., & Bertrand, N. (2016). Cardiac outflow morphogenesis depends on effects of retinoic acid signaling on multiple cell lineages. Developmental Dynamics, 245(3), 388–401. https://doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.24357

Goddeeris, M. M., Schwartz, R., Klingensmith, J., & Meyers, E. N. (2007). Independent requirements for Hedgehog signaling by both the anterior heart field and neural crest cells for outflow tract development. Development (Cambridge, England), 134(8), 1593–1604. https://doi.org/10.1242/DEV.02824

Kelly, R. G., Brown, N. A., & Buckingham, M. E. (2001). The arterial pole of the mouse heart forms from Fgf10-expressing cells in pharyngeal mesoderm. Developmental Cell, 1(3), 435–440. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1534-5807(01)00040-5

Meilhac, S. M., Esner, M., Kelly, R. G., Nicolas, J. F., & Buckingham, M. E. (2004). The clonal origin of myocardial cells in different regions of the embryonic mouse heart. Developmental Cell, 6(5), 685–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1534-5807(04)00133-9

Verzi, M. P., McCulley, D. J., de Val, S., Dodou, E., & Black, B. L. (2005). The right ventricle, outflow tract, and ventricular septum comprise a restricted expression domain within the secondary/anterior heart field. Developmental Biology, 287(1), 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.YDBIO.2005.08.041

Wang, S., & Moise, A. R. (2019). Recent insights on the role and regulation of retinoic acid signaling during epicardial development. Genesis, 57(7). https://doi.org/10.1002/dvg.23303

Zaffran, S., Kelly, R. G., Meilhac, S. M., Buckingham, M. E., & Brown, N. A. (2004). Right ventricular myocardium derives from the anterior heart field. Circulation Research, 95(3), 261–268. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000136815.73623.BE