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Event: 1718

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Suppression of IL-4 production

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Suppression of IL-4 production
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Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
T cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
immune system

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
interleukin-4 production interleukin-4 decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Immune dysfunction induced by JAK3 inhibition KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

IL-4 is a mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens. IL-4 is pivotal in shaping the nature of immune responses. Upon activation, naïve peripheral CD4+ T cells begin to synthesize and secrete cytokines. Type 2 helper cells (Th2 cells) produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13. IL-4 is a 15-kD polypeptide with pleiotropic effects on many cell types. In T cells, binding of IL-4 to its receptor induces proliferation and differentiation into Th2 cells. Th2 cells assist B cells in promoting class switching from IgM to IgG1 and IgE (Choi and Reiser 1998).

STAT5 phosphorylation facilitates the dimerization of STAT5, transport to the nucleus, and gene regulation (Levy and Darnell 2002). DNaseI hypersensitivity sites II (HS) and III (HS) in intron 2 have been identified in several regions of the Il4/Il13 locus. STAT5A binding to sites near HS and HS could provide a mechanism through which STAT5A mediates IL-4 gene accessibility and participates in the induction of IL-4 production (Zhu, et al. 2003). The CD3 antibody-induced phosphorylation of STAT5 can be downregulated by tofacitinib, suggesting that JAK3 inhibition by tofacitinib can downregulate STAT5-dependent cytokine signaling. Tofacitinib was shown to abrogate anti-CD3-induced STAT5 activation in CD4+ T cells and inhibit IL-4 production from CD4+ T cells (Migita, et al. 2011).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

In one study, CD4+ T cells were stimulated with CD3 monoclonal antibodies in the presence or absence of tofacitinib (CP-690550) for 48 h. Supernatants were collected and the levels of IL-4 production were measured by ELISA (Migita, et al. 2011). The authors also extract total RNA after 8 h or 24 h of stimulation and measured IL-4 mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR (Migita, et al. 2011).

In another study, flow cytometry analysis involving intracellular staining was used to measure cytosolic IL-4 content in stimulated cells (Zhu, et al. 2001). Relative gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR using Taqman Gene Expression primer probe sets and ABI PRISM 7700 or 7900 Taqman systems (Applied Biosystems). The comparative threshold cycle method and internal controls (cyclophillin or β-actin) were used to normalize the expression of target gene (IL-4) (Ghoreschi, et al. 2011).

Cytokine content was quantified in appropriately diluted samples in duplicate using ELISA kits to test matched antibody pairs with biotin-horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin detection and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine substrate. ELISA plates were scanned using the UVmax plate reader (Molecular Devices) using SOFT max software (Dumont, et al. 1998).

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

In one study, only 1% of CD4 T cells from STAT5a-/- mice primed with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 with IL-2 produced IL-4, whereas 10.5% of control C57BL/6 CD4 T cells produced IL-4 (Cote-Sierra, et al. 2004).

Cells from STAT5A-deficient mice or cells treated with phospho-STAT5 peptide are defective in Th2 differentiation. STAT5A single-deficient mice showed impaired Th2 differentiation. Reconstituting STAT5A by retroviral infection restored the capacity of cells to induce IL-4 (Kagami, et al. 2001)

IL-2 directly activates STAT5A and STAT5B. T cells from mice deficient in either STAT5A or STAT5B did not show a dramatic change in T cell proliferation, but cells from mice in which both had been knocked out proliferated poorly in response to IL-4 (Moriggl, et al. 1999).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Choi P, Reiser H. 1998. IL-4: role in disease and regulation of production. Clin Exp Immunol 113:317-319. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00690.x.

Cote-Sierra J, Foucras G, Guo L, Chiodetti L, Young HA, Hu-Li J, Zhu J, Paul WE. 2004. Interleukin 2 plays a central role in Th2 differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3880-3885. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0400339101.

Dumont FJ, Staruch MJ, Fischer P, DaSilva C, Camacho R. 1998. Inhibition of T cell activation by pharmacologic disruption of the MEK1/ERK MAP kinase or calcineurin signaling pathways results in differential modulation of cytokine production. J Immunol 160:2579-2589.

Ghoreschi K, Jesson MI, Li X, Lee JL, Ghosh S, Alsup JW, Warner JD, Tanaka M, Steward-Tharp SM, Gadina M, Thomas CJ, Minnerly JC, Storer CE, LaBranche TP, Radi ZA, Dowty ME, Head RD, Meyer DM, Kishore N, O'Shea JJ. 2011. Modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by tofacitinib (CP-690,550). J Immunol 186:4234-4243. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1003668.

Kagami S, Nakajima H, Suto A, Hirose K, Suzuki K, Morita S, Kato I, Saito Y, Kitamura T, Iwamoto I. 2001. Stat5a regulates T helper cell differentiation by several distinct mechanisms. Blood 97:2358-2365. DOI: 10.1182/blood.v97.8.2358.

Levy DE, Darnell JE, Jr. 2002. Stats: transcriptional control and biological impact. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:651-662. DOI: 10.1038/nrm909.

Migita K, Miyashita T, Izumi Y, Koga T, Komori A, Maeda Y, Jiuchi Y, Aiba Y, Yamasaki S, Kawakami A, Nakamura M, Ishibashi H. 2011. Inhibitory effects of the JAK inhibitor CP690,550 on human CD4(+) T lymphocyte cytokine production. BMC Immunol 12:51. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-12-51.

Moriggl R, Topham DJ, Teglund S, Sexl V, McKay C, Wang D, Hoffmeyer A, van Deursen J, Sangster MY, Bunting KD, Grosveld GC, Ihle JN. 1999. Stat5 is required for IL-2-induced cell cycle progression of peripheral T cells. Immunity 10:249-259.

Zhu J, Cote-Sierra J, Guo L, Paul WE. 2003. Stat5 activation plays a critical role in Th2 differentiation. Immunity 19:739-748. DOI: 10.1016/s1074-7613(03)00292-9.

Zhu J, Guo L, Watson CJ, Hu-Li J, Paul WE. 2001. Stat6 is necessary and sufficient for IL-4's role in Th2 differentiation and cell expansion. J Immunol 166:7276-7281. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.166.12.7276.