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Event: 1846

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Thrombosis and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Short name
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Thrombosis and DIC
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Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Organ

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
blood

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
Venous thrombosis platelet increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
SARS-CoV2 to thrombosis and DIC AdverseOutcome Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Sars-CoV-2 causes stroke KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
TLR9 activation leading to Multi Organ Failure and ARDS KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Moderate NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Not Specified

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific Not Specified

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Thrombosis is defined as the formation or presence of a thrombus. Clotting within a blood vessel may cause infarction of tissues supplied by the vessel. Extreme aggravation of blood coagulation induces multiple thrombi in the microvasculature, which leads to consumption coagulopathy followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

DIC is a pathological syndrome resulting from the formation of thrombin, subsequent activation and consumption of coagulation proteins, and the production of fibrin thrombi. The initial pathologic events are thrombotic in nature resulting in thrombotic vascular occlusions.  The initial clinical events are usually hemorrhagic resulting in oozing from mucosa and massive gastrointestinal blood loss. The occlusive events occur as a result of fibrin microthrombi or platelet microthrombi that obstruct the microcirculation of organs. This obstruction can result in organ hypoperfusion and ischemia, infarction, and necrosis. All organs are potentially vulnerable to the effects of thrombotic occlusions.

The renal effects of DIC are multifactorial and may be associated with hypovolemia or hypotension. If the hypotension is not corrected it may lead to renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis. Fibrin thrombi may also block glomerular capillaries causing ischemic, renal cortical necrosis (Colman, 1984).

The cerebral effects of DIC often result in nonspecific changes such as altered state of consciousness, convulsions, and coma. Major vascular occlusions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, multiple cortical and brain stem hemorrhages may occur following microvascular occlusions (Schwartzman RJ, 1982).

The pulmonary effects of DIC may be caused by interstitial hemorrhage resulting in a clinical effect resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome (Schwartzman RJ,1973; Shahl RL, 1984).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Clinical laboratory tests are used to diagnose DIC.

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot. PT measures the time required for fibrin clot formation after the addition of tissue thromboplastin and calcium. The average time range for blood to clot is about 10 to 13 seconds.

Activated partial prothrombin time (APTT). Platelet poor plasma [PPP] is incubated at 37°C then phospholipid (cephalin) and a contact activator (e.g. Kaolin, micronized silica, or ellagic acid) are added.  This leads to the conversion of Factor XI [FXI] to FXIa. The remainder of the pathway is not activated as no calcium is present.  The addition of calcium (pre-warmed to 37°C) initiates clotting. The APTT is the time taken from the addition of calcium to the formation of a fibrin clot. The clotting time for the APTT lies between 27-35 seconds.

Decreased fibrinogen concentrations

Diluted plasma is clotted with a high concentration of Thrombin. The tested plasma is diluted (usually 1:10 but this may vary if the Fibrinogen concentration is very low or very high) to minimize the effect of 'inhibitory substances' within the plasma e.g. heparin, elevated levels of FDPs. The use of a high concentration of Thrombin (typically 100 U/ml) ensures that the clotting times are independent of Thrombin concentration over a wide range of Fibrinogen levels. The test requires a reference plasma with a known Fibrinogen concentration and that has been calibrated against a known international reference standard. A calibration curve is constructed using this reference plasma by preparing a series of dilutions (1:5 –1:40) in the buffer to give a range of Fibrinogen concentrations. The clotting time of each of these dilutions is established (using duplicate samples) and the results (clotting time(s)/Fibrinogen concentration (g/L) are plotted on Log-Log graph paper. The 1:10 concentration is considered to be 100% i.e. normal. There should be a linear correlation between clotting times in the region of 10-50 sec. The test platelet-poor diluted plasma (diluted 1:10 in buffer) is incubated at 37°C, Thrombin [~100 U/mL] added (all pre-warmed to 37°C). The time taken for the clot to form is compared to the calibration curve and the Fibrinogen concentration deduced. Test samples whose clotting times fall out with the linear part of the calibration curve should be re-tested using different dilutions. Most laboratories use an automated method in which clot formation is deemed to have occurred when the optical density of the mixture has exceeded a certain threshold.

Platelet Measurements-

A platelet count is the number of platelets a person has per microliter. The ideal platelet range is 150,000 – 400,000 per microliter in most healthy people.

Fibrinolysis measurements-

        d-dimer concentration ALERE TRIAGE® D-DIMER TEST

D-Dimer can be measured by a fluorescence immunoassay. To determine cross-linked fibrin degradation products containing D-dimer in EDTA anticoagulated whole blood and plasma specimens. The test is used as an aid in the assessment and evaluation of patients suspected of having disseminated intravascular coagulation or thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism

Procedure: 

Commercially available kits are available to measure d-dimer in whole blood or plasma. The kits contain all the reagents necessary for the quantification of cross-linked fibrin degradation products containing D-dimer in EDTA anticoagulated whole blood or plasma specimens.

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Homo sapiens

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. More help

Thrombosis is one of the world’s main concerns in terms of severe symptoms or adverse responses of the vaccine for COVID-19 which is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Excess thrombosis leads to DIC, which might be mortal. For safely developing the therapeutics and vaccines of COVID-19, it is regulatory significant to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of coronaviral infection, which may include thrombosis and DIC, AO1846.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Hemostasis and Thrombosis Basic Principles and Clinical Practices Robert W Colman, Jack Hirsh, Victor J. Marder, Edwin W. Salzman (ed) Philadelphia, 1994.

Schwartzman RJ, Hill JB: Neurologic complications of DIC. Neurology 32:791, 1982

Robboy SJ, Minna JD, Colman RW et.al. Pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome as a manifestation of DIC: Analysis of 10 cases. Chest 63:718, 1973.

Stahl RL, Javid JP, Lackner H: Unrecognized pulmonary embolism presenting as DIC. SM J Med 76:772, 1984.