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Key Event Title
Sustentacular cells, decrease
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
Key Event Description
Biological state: The sustentacular cells are one of the major non neuronal cellular constituents of the olfactory epithelium (OE). The olfactory sustentacular cells are believed to be partly epithelial and partly glial (Liang, 2020).
Biological compartment: The sustentacular cells are located in the OE.
General role in the biology: The sustentacular cells provide mechanical strength to the olfactory epithelium, generate the olfactory binding protein, and support the other cells with nutrients (Choi and Goldstein, 2018). Sustentacular cells are responsible for the maintenance of the ion and water balance within the olfactory epithelium (Suzuki et al., 2000). Sustentacular cells provide support to olfactory sensory neurons by maintaining ion balance (Vogalis, 2005).
Sustentacular cells have been proposed to be involved in peripheral processing of odorants in multiple ways:
- appear to endocytose (clear) the odorant-binding proteins after signal transduction at the neurons’ cilia to allow the next round of odorant receptor binding, thereby increasing sensitivity (Heydel et al., 2013; Strotmann and Breer 2011).
- express multiple CYP450-family monooxygenases, which hydroxylate and help to remove toxic volatiles (Heydel et al., 2013).
- supply neuronal cilia with some of the glucose required to meet the high energy demands of the olfactory transduction cascade (Cooper et al., 2020; Villar et al., 2017).
- maintain the structural integrity of the olfactory epithelium (Bryche et al., 2020; Jia et al., 2010).
- are closely associated, both metabolically and functionally, with olfactory neurons and with odorant signal transduction. (Butowt and von Bartheld, 2020)
How It Is Measured or Detected
Domain of Applicability
Butowt, R., and von Bartheld, C. S. (2020). Anosmia in COVID-19: underlying mechanisms and assessment of an olfactory route to brain infection. Neuroscientist doi: 10.1177/1073858420956905
Bryche B, St Albin A, Murri S, Lacôte S, Pulido C, Ar Gouilh M, Lesellier S, Servat A, Wasniewski M, Picard-Meyer E, Monchatre-Leroy E, Volmer R, Rampin O, Le Goffic R, Marianneau P, Meunier N. Massive transient damage of the olfactory epithelium associated with infection of sustentacular cells by SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamsters. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Oct;89:579-586. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.032. Epub 2020 Jul 3. PMID: 32629042; PMCID: PMC7332942.
Torabi A., Mohammadbagheri E., Akbari Dilmaghani N., Bayat A.H., Fathi M., Vakili K., Alizadeh R., Rezaeimirghaed O., Hajiesmaeili M., Ramezani M., Simani L., Aliaghaei A. Proinflammatory cytokines in the olfactory mucosa result in COVID-19 induced anosmia. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2020