This Event is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA license. This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use. If you remix, adapt, or build upon the material, you must license the modified material under identical terms.

Event: 209

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Peptide Oxidation

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Peptide Oxidation
Explore in a Third Party Tool

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
eukaryotic cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
oxidative stress increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE.Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Cholestatic Liver Injury induced by Inhibition of the Bile Salt Export Pump (ABCB11) KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
PDK inhibition- HCC KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Hypertension MolecularInitiatingEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Not under active development Under Development
JNK, FOXO and WNT alteration leading to reproductive failure: Multi-OMICS approach KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rodents rodents High NCBI
human and other cells in culture human and other cells in culture High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Oxidative stress corresponds to an imbalance between the rate of oxidant production and that of their degradation. The term oxidative stress indicates the outcome of oxidative damage to biologically relevant macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. This occurs when oxidative stress-related molecules, generated in the extracellular environment or within the cell, exceed cellular antioxidant defenses. Major reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion, as well as 4-hydroxy- 2,3-nonenal (HNE) and related 4-hydroxy-2,3-alkenals (HAKs), major aldehydic end-products of lipid peroxidation, can act as potential mediators able to affect signal transduction pathways as well as the proliferative and functional response of target cells. H2O2 and superoxide anion may be also generated as molecular messengers within the cell as part of the cellular response to defined growth factors, cytokines and other mediators. The final consequence at tissue, cellular and molecular level is primarily affected by the steady state concentration of oxidative stress-related molecules. The main biological targets of free radicals are proteins, lipids and DNA.

Major consequences of reaction of ROS, HAKs and NO with biologically relevant macromolecules that can mediate pathophysiological effects:

ROS: DNA: oxidation, strand breaks, genotoxicity Proteins: oxidation, fragmentation, formation of carbonyls Lipids: lipid peroxidation and degradation

HAKs: DNA: adducts (low doses), strand breaks, genotoxicity (high doses) Proteins: adducts (Michael type reactions on Lys, Cys and His residues)

NO: DNA: oxidation, strand breaks Proteins: oxidation, nitrosation, nitration (nytrosylation of tyrosine) Lipids: lipid peroxidation and degradation

Continued oxidative stress can lead to chronic inflammation. Oxidative stress can activate a variety of transcription factors including NF-κB, AP-1, p53, HIF-1α, PPAR-γ, β-catenin/Wnt, and Nrf2. Activation of these transcription factors can lead to the expression of over 500 different genes, including those for growth factors, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which can activate inflammatory pathways. [1] [2] [3]

Glutathione (GSH) oxidation refers to the conversion of reduced glutathione to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the presence of oxidative species. GSH plays an important role as an anti-oxidant in regulating cellular redox homeostasis, and is mainly present in the cell as the reduced form (98%). Deficiency in GSH or a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio results in decreased anti-oxidant function and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, thus making it a marker of cellular redox status. An imbalance in GSH/GSSG ratio has been implicated in the onset and progression of human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, pulmonary diseases and cardiovascular diseases (Ballatori et al., 2009; Kalinina et al., 2014)

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

measuring oxidative stress

Agents for ROS detection are primarily fluorescence based, but recently luminescent based detections have been introduced. The biggest difficulty reported with much of the cellular ROS research has been with the lack of reporter agents specific for discrete molecules. ROS moieties by their nature are reactive with a number of different molecules; as such designing reporter agents has been difficult. With more specific chemistries, particularly for hydrogen peroxide, the specific mechanisms for regulation will be elucidated.

Reduced glutathione (GSH) is regenerated from its oxidized form (GSSH) by the action of an NADPH dependent reductase GSSH + NADPH + H+ à 2 GSH + NADP+ Due to the rapid nature of the reduction of GSSH relative to its synthesis or secretion, the ratio of GSH to GSSH is a good indicator of oxidative stress within cells. GSH and GSSH levels can be determined by HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, or biochemically in microplates. Several different assays have been designed to measure glutathione in samples. By using a luciferin derivative in conjunction with glutathione S-transferase enzyme the amount of GSH would be proportional to the luminescent signal generated when luciferase is added in a subsequent step. Total glutathione can be determined colorimetrically by reacting GSH with DTNB (Ellman’s reagent) in the presence of glutathione reductase. Glutathione reductase reduces GSSH to GSH, which then reacts with DTNB to produce a yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB), which absorbs at 412 nm.

Lipid peroxidation is one of the most widely used indicators of free radical formation, a key indicator of oxidative stress. Measurement of lipid peroxidation has historically relied on the detection of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive compounds such as malondialdehyde generated from the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. While this method is controversial in that it is quite sensitive, but not necessarily specific to MDA, it remains the most widely used means to determine lipid peroxidation. This reaction, which takes place under acidic conditions at 90-100ºC, results in an adduct that can be measured colorimetrically at 532 nm or by fluorescence using a 530 nm excitation wavelength and a 550 nm emission wavelength. A number of commercial assay kits are available for this assay using absorbance or fluorescence detection technologies. The formation of F2-like prostanoid derivatives of arachidonic acid, termed F2-isoprostanes (IsoP) has been shown to be specific for lipid peroxidation. Unlike the TBA assay, measurement of IsoP appears to be specific to lipid peroxides, they are stable and are not produced by any enzymatic pathway making interpretation easier. There have been a number of commercial ELISA kits developed for IsoPs, but interfering agents in samples requires partial purification of samples prior to running the assay. The only reliable means for detection is through the use of GC/MS, which makes it expensive and limits throughput.

Superoxide detection is based on the interaction of superoxide with some other compound to create a measurable result. The reduction of ferricytochrome c to ferrocytochrome c has been used in a number of situations to assess the rate of superoxide formation. While not completely specific for superoxide this reaction can be monitored colorimetrically at 550 nm. Chemiluminescent reactions have been used for their potential increase in sensitivity over absorbance-based detection methods. The most widely used chemiluminescent substrate is Lucigenin, but this compound has a propensity for redox cycling, which has raised doubts about its use in determining quantitative rates of superoxide production. Coelenterazine has also been used as a chemiluminescent substrate. Hydrocyanine dyes are fluorogenic sensors for superoxide and hydroxyl radical. These dyes are synthesized by reducing the iminium cation of the cyanine (Cy) dyes with sodium borohydride. While weakly fluorescent, upon oxidation their fluorescence intensity increases 100 fold. In addition to being fluorescent, oxidation also converts the molecule from being membrane permeable to an ionic impermeable moiety. The most characterized of these probes are Hydro-Cy3 and Hydro-Cy5.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the most important ROS in regards to mitogenic stimulation or cell cycle regulation. There are a number of fluorogenic substrates, which serve as hydrogen donors that have been used in conjunction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme to produce intensely fluorescent products. The more commonly used substrates include diacetyldichloro-fluorescein, homovanillic acid, and Amplex® Red. In these examples, increasing amounts of H2O2 form increasing amounts of fluorescent product.

Nitric Oxide The free radical nitric oxide (•NO) is produced by a number of different cell types with a variety of biological functions. Regardless of the source or role, the free radical •NO has a very short half life (t½= 4 seconds), reacting with several different molecules normally present to form either nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) A commonly used method for the indirect determination of •NO is the determination of its composition products nitrate and nitrite colorimetrically. This reaction requires that nitrate (NO3) first be reduced to nitrite (NO2), typically by the action of nitrate reductase. Subsequent determination of nitrite by a two step process provides information on the “total” of nitrate and nitrite. In the presence of hydrogen ions nitrite forms nitrous acid, which reacts with sulfanilamide to produce a diazonium ion. This then coupled to N-(1-napthyl) ethylenediamine to form the chromophore which absorbs at 543 nm. Nitrite only determinations can then be made in a parallel assay where the samples were not reduced prior to the colorimetric assay. Actual nitrate levels are then calculated by the subtraction of nitrite levels from the total. [4]

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

The concentrations of GSH and GSSG have been shown in tissues of human and laboratory animals, including rats, mice and cows (Chen et al., 2010; Giustarini et al., 2013).


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Ballatori, N., Krance, S.M., Notenboom, S., Shi, S., Tieu, K., and Hammond, C.L. (2009). Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biol. Chem. 390, 191–214.

Chen, C.-A., Wang, T.-Y., Varadharaj, S., Reyes, L.A., Hemann, C., Talukder, M.A.H., Chen, Y.-R., Druhan, L.J., and Zweier, J.L. (2010). S-glutathionylation uncouples eNOS and regulates its cellular and vascular function. Nature 468, 1115–1118.

Giustarini, D., Dalle-Donne, I., Milzani, A., Fanti, P., and Rossi, R. (2013). Analysis of GSH and GSSG after derivatization with N-ethylmaleimide. Nat. Protoc. 8, 1660–1669.

Held P., 2010 Biotek, Measurement of ROS in Cells,

Kalinina, E.V., Chernov, N.N., and Novichkova, M.D. (2014). Role of glutathione, glutathione transferase, and glutaredoxin in regulation of redox-dependent processes. Biochem. Biokhimii︠a︡ 79, 1562–1583.

Kamencic, H., Lyon, A., Paterson, P.G., and Juurlink, B.H. (2000). Monochlorobimane fluorometric method to measure tissue glutathione. Anal. Biochem. 286, 35–37.

Parola, M. and Robino, G. (2001). Oxidative stress-related molecules and liver fibrosis. J Hepatol. 35, 297-306

Reuter S. et al., (2010) Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med.49, 1603-1616

Sánchez-Valle V. et al., (2012) Role of oxidative stress and molecular changes in liver fibrosis: a review. Curr Med Chem. 19, 4850-4860

Tipple, T.E., and Rogers, L.K. (2012). Methods for the Determination of Plasma or Tissue Glutathione Levels. Methods Mol. Biol. Clifton NJ 889, 315–324