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Event: 317

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Altered, Cardiovascular development/function

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Altered, Cardiovascular development/function

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
heart

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
abnormal cardiovascular system physiology morphological change
cardiovascular system development cardiovascular system abnormal

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AHR activation to ELS mortality, via VEGF KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed
AhR mediated mortality, via COX-2 KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Vertebrates Vertebrates High NCBI
Invertebrates Invertebrates High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
Embryo High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

This key event applies to the disruption of cardiogenesis early enough in embryogenesis to result in gross morphological alterations leading to reduced cardiac function.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Altered cardiovascular development/function can be measured in numerous ways:

1) As blood flow in the mesencephalic vein by use of time-lapse recording using a digital video camera (Teraoka et al 2008; 2014). Blood flow is measured as the number of red blood cells passing the mesencephalic vein per second (Teraoka et al 2008; 2014). This method is described in detail by Teraoka et al (2002). However, some studies have assessed blood flow through visualized scoring techniques by use of a microscope as (1) same rate as control, (2) slower rate than control, or (3) no flow (Henry et al 1997).

2) As heart area, pericardial edema area, or yolk sac edema area quantified with area analysis by use of a microscope linked digital camera and conventional image software (Dong et al 2010; Teraoka et al 2008; 2014; Yamauchi et al 2006). Images at the same magnification are used to obtain the area measured as number of pixels (Teraoka et al 2008; 2014). This method can use either live individuals or histologic samples. This method is described in detail by Teraoka et al (2003).

3) As basic physical measurements such as heart weight, heart aspect ratio (horizontal length versus vertical length), heart weight to body weight ratio (Fujisawa et al 2014).

4) As incidence of malformation measured as percent occurrence among individuals (Buckler et al 2015; Dong et al 2010; Park et al 2014; Yamauchi et al 2006).This method is described in detail by Dong et al (2010).

5) As heartbeat rate measured by direct observation by use of a microscope (Park et al 2014). This method is described in detail by Park et al (2014).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help
  • Some form of cardiovascular system is present in members of the clade Bilateria (Bishopric 2005). This clade includes most animal phyla, except for sponges (Porifera), jellyfishes and corals (Cnidaria), placozoans (Placozoa), and comb jellies (Ctenophora).
  • Differences in cardiovascular systems are present among taxa. Vertebrates have closed circulatory systems, while some invertebrate taxa have open circulatory systems (Kardong 2006).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

1. Carro, T., Dean, K., and Ottinger, M. A. (2013a). Effects of an environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on embryonic survival and cardiac development in the domestic chicken. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(6), 1325-1331.

2. Carro, T., Taneyhill, L. A., and Ottinger, M. A. (2013b). The effects of an environmentally relevant 58 congener polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on cardiac development in the chick embryo. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.

3. DeWitt, J. C., Millsap, D. S., Yeager, R. L., Heise, S. S., Sparks, D. W., and Henshel, D. S. (2006). External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(2), 541-551.

4. Heid, S. E., Walker, M. K., and Swanson, H. I. (2001). Correlation of cardiotoxicity mediated by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Toxicol. Sci 61(1), 187-196.

5. Walker, M. K., and Catron, T. F. (2000). Characterization of cardiotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related chemicals during early chick embryo development. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167(3), 210-221.

6. Walker, M. K., Pollenz, R. S., and Smith, S. M. (1997). Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator during chick cardiogenesis is consistent with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced heart defects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 143(2), 407-419.

7. Kopf, P. G., and Walker, M. K. (2009). Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides. J. Environ. Sci. Health C. Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 27(4), 276-285.

Bishopric, N.H. (2005). Evolution of the heart from bacteria to man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1047, 13-29.

Buckler J.; Candrl, J.S.; McKee, M.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.E.; Galat, D.L. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to PCB-126 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure. Enviro. Toxicol. Chem. 2015, 34(6), 1417-1424.

Carney, S.A.; Prasch, A.L.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. 2006. Understanding dioxin developmental toxicity using the zebrafish model. Birth Defects Research. A. 76, 7-18.

Cohen-Barnhouse, A.M.; Zwiernik, M.J.; Link, J.E.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Kennedy, S.W.; Herve, J.C.; Giesy, J.P.; Wiseman, S.; Yang, Y.; Jones, P.D.; Yi, W.; Collins, B.; Newsted, J.L.; Kay, D.; Bursian, S.J. 2011. Sensitivity of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos to in ovo exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF. Toxicol. Sci. 119, 93-102.

Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development. Enviro. Toxico. Chem. 1998, 17, 472-483.

Goldstone, H.M.H.; Stegeman, J.J. (2008). Molecular mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin cardiovascular embryotoxicity. Drug. Metab. Rev. 38, 261-289.

Heid, S.E.; Walker, M.K.; Swanson, H.I. (2001). Correlation of cardiotoxicity mediated by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Toxicol. Sci. 61 (1), 187-196.

Huang, L.; Wang, C.; Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhong, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zuo, Z. (2012). Benzo[a]pyrene exposure influences the cardiac development and the expression of cardiovascular relative genes in zebrafish (Daniorerio) embryos. Chemosphere. 87 (4), 369-375.

Johnson, R.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Jensen, K.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Linnum, A.L.; Lothenbach, D.B.; Holcombe, G.W.; Cook, P.M.; Christ, S.A.; Lattier, D.L.; Gordon, D.A. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to early life stage brooke trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) following parental dietary exposure. Enviro. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, 17 (12), 2408-2421.

Kardong, K.V. (2006). Vertebrates: comparative anatomy, function, evolution. McGraw-Hill Higher Eduction. Boston, USA.

Lemly, A.D. (2002). Symptoms and implications of selenium toxicity in fish: the Belews Lake case example. Aquat. Toxicol. 57 (1-2), 39-49.

Park, Y.J.; Lee, M.J.; Kim, H.R.; Chung, K.H.; Oh, S.M. Developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in artificially fertilized crucian carp (Carassius auratus) embryo. Sci. Totl. Enviro. 2014, 491-492, 271-278.

Teraoka, H.; Dong, W.; Hiraga, T. (2003). Zebrafish as a novel experimental model for development toxicology. Congenit. Anom. 43, 123-132.

Teraoka, T.; Dong, W.; Ogawa, S.; Tsukiyama, S.; Okuhara, Y.; Niiyama, M.; Ueno, N.; Peterson, R.E. (2002). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity in the zebrafish embryo: Altered regional blood flow and impaired lower jaw development. Toxicol. Sci. 65, 192-199.

Tillitt, D.E.; Buckler, J.A.; Nicks, D.K.; Candrl, J.S.; Claunch, R.A.; Gale, R.W.; Puglis, H.J.; Little, E.E.; Linbo, T.L.; Baker, M. Sensitivity of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) early life stages to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl. 2015. Enviro. Toxicol. Chem. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3614.

Toomey, B.H.; Bello, S.; Hahn, M.E.; Cantrell, S.; Wright, P.; Tillitt, D.; Di Giulio, R.T. TCDD induces apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A expression in developing Fundulus heteroclitus embryos. Aquat. Toxicol. 2001, 53, 127-138.

Walker, M.K.; Spitsbergen, J.M.; Olson, J.R.; Peterson, R.E. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity during early life stage development of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Canad. J. Fisheries Aqua. Sci. 1991, 48, 875-883.

Yamauchi, M.; Kim, E.Y.; Iwata, H.; Shima, Y.; Tanabe, S. Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos: an association of morphological deformities with AHR1, AHR2 and CYP1A expressions. Aquat. Toxicol. 2006, 16, 166-179.

Zabel, E.W; Cook, P.M.; Peterson, R.E. Toxic equivalency factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and biphenyl congeners based on early-life stage mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol. 1995. 31, 315-328.