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Event: 845

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Inhibition, UROD

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
Inhibition, UROD

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
catalytic activity uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AHR activation-uroporphyria KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
chicken Gallus gallus High NCBI
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages Not Specified
Adult High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help
Figure 1: Disruption of the normal heme biosynthesis pathway by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) inhibition. Formation of the inhibitor (suggested as being uroporphomethene) is thought to require the action of the phase I metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Synergistic induction of ALA synthase 1 and increases in oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)), caused by alcohol, estrogens and xenobiotics, potentiate the accumulation of porphyrins and therefore the porphyric phenotype. (Modified from Caballes (2012) Liver Int. 32 (6), 880-893.)

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) is the fifth enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway and catalyzes the step-wise conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen. Each of the four acetic acid substituents is decarboxylated in sequence with the consequent formation of hepta-, hexa-, and pentacarboxylic porphyrinogens as intermediates[1]. Impairment of this enzyme, either due to heterozygous mutations in the UROD gene or chemical inhibition of the UROD protein, leads to accumulation of uroporphyrins (and other highly carboxylated porphyrins)[2], which are normally only present in trace amounts.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Methods that have been previously reviewed and approved by a recognized authority should be included in the Overview section above. All other methods, including those well established in the published literature, should be described here. Consider the following criteria when describing each method: 1. Is the assay fit for purpose? 2. Is the assay directly or indirectly (i.e. a surrogate) related to a key event relevant to the final adverse effect in question? 3. Is the assay repeatable? 4. Is the assay reproducible?

Due to the high instability of porphyrinogens, they must be synthesized as an integral part of the enzyme assay for use as a substrate. Uroporphyrinogen can either be generated by enzymatic synthesis or chemical reduction[7]. The former makes use of bacterial porphobilinogen deaminase to prepare the porphyrinogen substrate and the latter often utilizes sodium amalgam or sodium borohydride under an inert gas. Chemical reduction however often involves large quantities of mercury or extremely alkaline conditions and requires significant purification before the enzyme assay can be performed. Bergonia and colleagues[8] suggest palladium on carbon (Pd/C) to be the most efficient and environmentally friendly chemical preparation of porphyrinogens as Pd/C is more stable than sodium amalgam and can easily be removed by filtration, eliminating the need for laborious purification.

Once uroporphyrinogen is synthesized it is co-incubated with UROD under standardized conditions. The reaction is then stopped, reaction products and un-metabolized substrate are esterified, and the porphyrin esters are separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography[7]. This enzyme assay classically utilizes milliliter quantities but has been modified to a microassay, minimizing cost and enhancing sensitivity[9].

Another method based on reverse-phase HPLC was developed[15]. This assay system uses either uroporphyrinogen III or pentacarboxyporphyrinogen I as substrate and liver homogenate in sucrose treated with a suspension of cellulose phosphate as enzyme source.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

UROD inhibition has been measured in mouse[10] rat[11] and human liver[1], Japanese quail kidney[12] and chicken erythrocytes[13] and hepatocytes[14].


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help
  1. Elder, G. H., and Roberts, A. G. (1995). Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. J Bioenerg. Biomembr. 27 (2), 207-214.
  2. Frank, J., and Poblete-Gutierrez, P. (2010). Porphyria cutanea tarda--when skin meets liver. Best. Pract. Res. Clin Gastroenterol. 24 (5), 735-745.
  3. Smith, A. G., and Elder, G. H. (2010). Complex gene-chemical interactions: hepatic uroporphyria as a paradigm. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23 (4), 712-723.
  4. Phillips, J. D., Bergonia, H. A., Reilly, C. A., Franklin, M. R., and Kushner, J. P. (2007). A porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase causes porphyria cutanea tarda. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 104 (12), 5079-5084.
  5. Danton, M., and Lim, C. K. (2007). Porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed. Chromatogr. 21 (7), 661-663
  6. Caballes F.R., Sendi, H., and Bonkovsky, H. L. (2012). Hepatitis C, porphyria cutanea tarda and liver iron: an update. Liver Int. 32 (6), 880-893.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Phillips, J. D., and Kushner, J. P. (2001). Measurement of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity. Curr. Protoc. Toxicol. Chapter 8, Unit.
  8. Bergonia, H. A., Phillips, J. D., and Kushner, J. P. (2009). Reduction of porphyrins to porphyrinogens with palladium on carbon. Anal. Biochem. 384 (1), 74-78.
  9. Jones, M. A., Thientanavanich, P., Anderson, M. D., and Lash, T. D. (2003). Comparison of two assay methods for activities of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and coproporphyrinogen oxidase. J Biochem. Biophys. Methods 55 (3), 241-249.
  10. Smith, A. G., Francis, J. E., Kay, S. J., and Greig, J. B. (1981) Hepatic toxicity and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity following a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 30 (20), 2825-2830.
  11. Rios de Molina, M.D., Wainstok de Calmanovici, R., San Martin de Viale, L.C. (1980) Investigations of the presence of porphyrinogen carboxy-lase inhibitor in the liver of rats intoxicated with hexachlorobenzene. Int. J. Biochem. 12, 1027-32.
  12. Miranda, C.L., Henderson, M.C., Wang, J.-L, Nakaue, H.S., and Buhler, D.R. (1992) Comparative effects of the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1242, on porphyrin and xenobiotic metabolism in kidney of Japanese quial and rat. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 103C(1), 149-52.
  13. Kawanishi, S., Seki, Y., and Sano, S. (1983) Uroporphyrinogen decarboxilase: Purification, properties, and inhibition by polychlorinated biphenyl isomers. J. Biol. Chem. 258(7), 4285-92.
  14. Lambrecht, R. W., Sinclair, P. R., Bement, W. J., Sinclair, J. F., Carpenter, H. M., Buhler, D. R., Urquhart, A. J., and Elder, G. H. (1988). Hepatic uroporphyrin accumulation and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in cultured chick-embryo hepatocytes and in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and mice treated with polyhalogenated aromatic compounds. Biochem. J. 253(1), 131-138.
  15. Francis, J. E., & Smith, A. G. (1984). Assay of mouse liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytical biochemistry138(2), 404-410.