This AOP is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to uroporphyria
Point of Contact
- Amani Farhat
- Jason M. O'Brien
- Allie Always
|Author status||OECD status||OECD project||SAAOP status|
|Open for citation & comment||WPHA/WNT Endorsed||1.7||Included in OECD Work Plan|
This AOP was last modified on May 08, 2022 11:33
|Activation, AhR||March 22, 2018 14:00|
|Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen||September 16, 2017 10:16|
|Inhibition, UROD||May 30, 2018 12:49|
|Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins||May 07, 2018 07:56|
|Uroporphyria||May 07, 2018 07:53|
|Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5||May 30, 2018 14:24|
|Activation, AhR leads to Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5||May 07, 2018 08:09|
|Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5 leads to Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen||May 31, 2018 15:43|
|Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen leads to Inhibition, UROD||May 30, 2018 10:58|
|Inhibition, UROD leads to Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins||May 30, 2018 12:40|
|Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins leads to Uroporphyria||May 07, 2018 08:03|
|Dibenzo-p-dioxin||November 29, 2016 18:42|
|Polychlorinated biphenyl||November 29, 2016 18:42|
|Hexachlorobenzene||November 29, 2016 18:42|
|Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)||February 09, 2017 15:43|
Hepatic uroporphyria is a disorder where the disturbance of heme biosynthesis results in accumulation and excretion of uroporphyrin, heptacarboxyl- and hexacarboxyl porphyrin: collectively referred to as highly carboxylated porphyrins (HCPs). The disorder is due to a homozygous mutation in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), an enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis pathway , or may be chemically induced, which involves the inhibition of UROD. This adverse outcome pathway (AOP) describes the linkages leading to chemically induced porphyria through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. AHR activation leads to the induction of cytochrome P450 1A2, a phase I metabolizing enzyme, which in turn results in excessive oxidation of uroporphyrinogen. This oxidation produces a UROD inhibitor, preventing the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coprouroporphyrinogen and increasing the synthesis of the UROD inhibitor in a positive feedback loop. The accumulation of uroporphyrinogen leads to its preferential oxidation and accumulation of HCP in various organs (Uroporphyria). This AOP was developed in accordance with OECD guidelines and demonstrates a high degree of confidence as a qualitative AOP. The quantitative understanding of this AOP however is not yet complete, preventing the accurate prediction of uroporphyria from lower level key events.
Heme is a cyclic tetrapyrrole cofactor containing Fe2+ porphyrin-containing ferroprotein that forms various hemoproteins such as hemoglobin, cytochromes and catalases . Its biosynthesis mostly occurs in the liver and involves 8 separate steps. Porphyria is a disorder in which the disturbance of any of the steps of heme biosynthesis results in accumulation and excretion of porphyrins. A variety of porphyrias exist depending on which enzyme in the pathway is deficient. This AOP describes a situation in which the 5th step of heme biosynthesis, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), which converts uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen, is inhibited.
Hepatic uroporphyria is viewed somewhat differently by clinicians and toxicologists. For the former it is mostly a sporadic disease (porphyria cutanea tarda; PCT) occurring sometimes in patients exposed to a variety of insults such as alcohol, estrogens, hepatitis viruses, HIV and on dialysis. Importantly, very early on it was found that lowering body iron stores by bleeding or now chelators causes remission . In some northern European and US patients, carrying the hemochromatosis mutation is a risk factor but in other patients other iron susceptibility genes may contribute. Carrying a UROD mutation (lowering activity) is also a risk factor but still dependent on other susceptibility factors to see porphyria. To reproduce these findings experimentally has proved challenging but now possible. For toxicologists hepatic uroporphyria has mostly been seen as a toxic, but unique and curious endpoint of polychlorinated ligands of the AHR. Experimentally, TCDD in mice is the most potent agent consistent with AHR mode of action but is more difficult in rats and other organisms. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has been greatly studied for its porphyria-inducing abilities and a large incident of porphyria in some young people in Turkey 60 years ago was ascribed to susceptible individuals who had consumed HCB. It is controversial whether HCB is a weak AHR ligand. Evidence of porphyria in people exposed accidentally or occupationally to accepted AHR ligands such as TCDD and PCBs is thin. Importantly, iron status can profoundly modify experimental uroporphyria induced by these chemicals especially in mice. In fact iron overload alone of mice will eventually produce a strong hepatic uroporphyria which is markedly genetically determined and toxicity can be ameliorated by chelators resembling PCT. Thus hepatic porphyria could alternatively be viewed as an iron AOP. At an overall level hepatic uroporphyria in animals and patients is the outcome of complex genetic traits and external stimuli in which in some traditional toxicological circumstances binding of a chemical to the AHR may have a major contribution but in others may not.
Summary of the AOP
Molecular Initiating Events (MIE)
Key Events (KE)
Adverse Outcomes (AO)
|Sequence||Type||Event ID||Title||Short name|
|1||MIE||18||Activation, AhR||Activation, AhR|
|2||KE||850||Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5||Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5|
|3||KE||844||Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen||Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen|
|4||KE||845||Inhibition, UROD||Inhibition, UROD|
|5||KE||846||Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins||Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins|
Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)
|Activation, AhR leads to Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5||adjacent||High||High|
|Induction, CYP1A2/CYP1A5 leads to Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen||adjacent||Moderate||Low|
|Oxidation, Uroporphyrinogen leads to Inhibition, UROD||adjacent||Moderate||Low|
|Inhibition, UROD leads to Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins||adjacent||Moderate||Moderate|
|Accumulation, Highly carboxylated porphyrins leads to Uroporphyria||adjacent||High||High|
Life Stage Applicability
Overall Assessment of the AOP
Overall, this AOP can most accurately be applied to mammalian species past the embryonic and infant stage of development. It is also representative of a solid toxicity pathway in avian species, however the contribution of the defining key event (UROD inhibition) is not as well understood; it is not as dramatically and consistently inhibited as it is with mammals. There is minimal evidence supporting the applicability of this AOP in fish, and none in alternate species. Details and supporting evidences are summarized below.
Domain of Applicability
Life Stage Applicability, Taxonomic Applicability, Sex Applicability Elaborate on the domains of applicability listed in the summary section above. Specifically, provide the literature supporting, or excluding, certain domains.
Life Stage Applicability: Uroporphyria occurs following chemical exposure in juvenile or adult individuals. Fetal exposure to dioxin-like compounds causes developmental abnormalities and embryolethality rather than HCP accumulation. Turkish children under the age of two that were exposed to HCB through breastmilk passed away from a condition called "pink sore”.
Taxonomic Applicability: Although the AHR is highly conserved in evolution, chemical-induced uroporphyria has only been detected in birds and mammals , including an accidental outbreak in humans due to hexachlorobenzen-contaminated grain in the 1950s. Fish are less susceptible to chemical-induced uroporphyria, but elevated levels of HCP have been documented in highly contaminated environments.
Sex Applicability: Although this AOP applies broadly to both males and females, sexual dimorphism for uroporphyria has been observed in rats exposed to hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Hepatic uroporphyrin III was markedly increased in female rats exposed to HCB whereas exposed males showed levels of hepatic porphyrins similar to controls.
Essentiality of the Key Events
Molecular Initiating Event Summary, Key Event Summary Provide an overall assessment of the essentiality for the key events in the AOP. Support calls for individual key events can be included in the molecular initiating event, key event, and adverse outcome tables above.
Every Key event in this AOP is absolutely essential for downstream events to occur. A summary of evidence for essentiality of each key event is given below.
Molecular Initiating Event: AHR activation (Essentiality=strong)
- Mice with a high-affinity Ahr allele (C57BL/6J ) are much more sensitive to uroporphyria than mice with low-affinity Ahr allele (DBA/2);
- The Ah locus influences the susceptibility of C57BL/6J mice to HCB-induced porphyria;
- Ahr knockout mice (C57BL/6) are resistant to development of porphyria, even in the presence of iron loading;
- Primary hepatocytes of avian species indicate that species that are highly sensitive to AHR activation are more sensitive to uroporphyrin accumulation than species with lower sensitivity to AHR activation.
Key Event 1: CYP1A2/Cyp1A5 induction (Essentiality=strong)
- CYP1A2 knockout in mice prevents chemical-induced uroporphyria;
- CYP1A2 knockout prevents porphyria in genetically predisposed mice (Hfe-/-, Urod-/+) that normally develop porphyria in absence of external stimuli;
- CYP1A2 levels are correlated with the extent of urophorphyrin accumulation in mice;
- 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and non-ortho substituted PCBs that are potent inducers of CYP1A4/5 cause accumulation of only HCPs in chicken embryonic hepatocytes cultures, whereas PCBs that do not induce CYP1A4/5 cause a porphyrin pattern that is not consistent with inhibition of UROD;
- Common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryonic hepatocyte cultures, which are ~50 to > 1600 times less sensitive than chicken embryonic hepatocyte cultures to CYP1A5 induction by TCDD and PCBs, do not accumulate HCPs upon chemical exposure.
It should be noted that a recent study by Davies et al. found that both C57BL/6J mice (susceptible to chemical-induced porphyria) and DBA/2 mice (resistant to porphyria due to polymorphism in AHR gene) showed increased expression of CYP1A2 when exposed to TCDD, even though the DBA/2 strain did not develop porphyria. Furthermore AHR-/- mice showed a mild uroporphyric response in the presence of iron loading and 5-aminolevulinic acid (a heme precursor). These findings suggest that the induction of CYP1A2 is not crucial for chemical-induced porphyria, but a basal level of expression is absolutely essential.
Key Event 2: Uroporphyrinogen oxidation (UROX) (Essentiality=strong)
- Uroporphyria is characterized biochemically by increased formation of HCPs derived by oxidation of the porphyrinogen substrates of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD); secondary to decreased activity of this enzyme in the liver;
- Uroporphomethane, derived from oxidizing a single carbon bridge in uroporphyrinogen, has been identified as the UROD inhibitor that leads to chemically- and genetically-induced uroporphyria in mice;
- UROX activity is positively correlated with uroporphyrin levels in mice.
Key Event 3: Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) inhibition (Essentiality=strong)
- Mutations in the UROD gene that reduce or eliminate UROD activity lead to porphyria in mammals; a decrease in hepatic UROD activity of at least 70% is necessary to observe symptoms from overproduction of porphyrins;
- A marked progressive decrease in UROD enzyme activity is a common feature in animal models of chemical-induced porphyria;
- Liver cytosol UROD activity in female rats exposed to HCB was decreased more than 70% and correlated with elevated hepatic uroporphyrin levels, whereas male rats, which did not develop porphyria, showed UROD activity similar to controls;
- UROD activity is inversely proportional to uroporphyrin levels in mice;
- In chicken hepatocytes, the strongest inducers of porphyrin accumulation were also the strongest inhibitors of UROD activity;
- Reduced UROD enzyme activity, not protein levels, is characteristic of uroporphyria in humans and rats.
Key Event 4: Highly carboxylated porphyrin (HCP) accumulation (Essentiality=strong)
- Under normal heme biosynthesis, porphyrins are only present in trace amounts in the liver; however, in the absence of UROD activity, the oxidation of Uroporphorynogen to uroporphyrins dominates, leading to an accumulation of HCPs;
- Porphyrins are strongly fluorescent compounds resulting in a characteristic red fluorescence of hepatic tissue under UV light that is proportional to the level of porphyrins. Increased urinary excretion of porphyrins is also indicative of their accumulation and can lead to dark red/brown urine. HCPs also accumulate in the skin causing solar hypersensitivity and increased skin fragility;
- HCP accumulation was observed in avian embryo hepatocyte cultures following exposure potent AHR agonists (dioxin-like compounds) and in the livers of Japanese quails and chickens exposed to PCBs;
- HCP accumulation was evident in mice treated with polyhalogenated aromatic compounds or TCDD.
Table 1 demonstrates that upstream KEs (monooxygenase activity/quantity) are significantly affected at lower doses than downstream KEs (porphyrin levels). After a 6 month recovery period, CYP450 and hepatic porphyrin levels were dramatically reduced, however, they did not return to normal. Furthermore, urinary porphyrin excretion remained maximally elevated
Table 2 demonstrates that upstream KEs (CYP1A2 expression and UROD inhibition) are significantly affected at earlier time-points than downstream KEs (porphyrin levels). These studies also show that upstream KEs are more sensitive to change than downstream KEs; ddY mice showed a 44% reduction in UROD activity but did not develop uroporphyria.
Key Events Relationships
Table 3 shows a sampling of the literature that demonstrates changes in KEs at multiple levels of organization leading to uroporphyria. The use of animal models resistant to porphyria (low AHR affinity or AHR/CYP1A2 knockout) illustrates the essentiality of these KEs in for downstream effects.
CYPs other than CYP1A2 are able of catalyzing uroporphyrinogen oxidation, raising doubts on the essentiality of CYP1A2 for this pathway. For instance, Phillips et al. were able to generate mild uroporphyria in a Cyp1A2-/- mouse model that is genetically predisposed (Hfe-/-, Urod-/+) to develop porphyria.
The essentiality of CYP1A2 induction in human porphyria cutanea tarda is unclear. UROX activity in human liver microsomes was not correlated with CYP1A2 content. Furthermore, there is contradictory evidence regarding the association between CYP1A2 polymorphism and susceptibility to porphyria cutanea tarda [63-64]. It may be possible that in patients with a genetic variation in UROD causing an inherent reduction in activity, the activity of CYP1A2 is less important.
UROD inhibition is not always observed and/or is less pronounced in avian models of porphyria, mainly in quail . It is suggested that a mechanism other than UROD inhibition explain the extent of porphyrin accumulation in birds. Therefore, the applicability of this AOP to avian remains uncertain.
The characterization of the UROD inhibitor isolated by Phillips  has been criticized by Danton. Therefore, UROD inhibitor has yet to be identified.
AhR binding stressors under certain conditions do not lead to adverse effect in particular mammalian strains.
Summary Table Provide an overall discussion of the quantitative information available for this AOP. Support calls for the individual relationships can be included in the Key Event Relationship table above.
The overall quantitative understanding of this AOP is moderate for mammals and poor for alternate species. Quantitative models have been developed that predict the AHR transactivation potential of various compounds , but the extent of AHR activation necessary to produce porphyria is not known. It has been established that a reduction in UROD activity of at least 70% is required to lead to overt uroporphyrin in mammals. Additionally, numerous in vitro systems have been developed to study porphyrin accumulation and UROD inhibition simultaneously; therefore, this KER provides the most feasible target for a predictive, quantitative model. However, care must be taken when reading across to other species; UROD inhibition is not always observed in avian models of porphyria, and when it is, it is less pronounced.
Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)
This AOP was developed with the intended purpose of chemical screening as well as ecological risk assessment. There are numerous in vitro assays for each key event up to the level of UROD activity. There is sufficient evidence that a 70% inhibition of UROD activity significantly increases the risk of developing uroporphyria in mammals, making it a promising target assay in the battery of chemical screening tools. Furthermore, there has recently been significant advances in the understanding of differences in avian sensitivity to AHR agonists, and a similar effort is underway for fish. Sequencing the AHR ligand binding domain of any bird species (and potentially fish species) allows for its classification as low, medium or high sensitivity, which aids in the chemical risk assessment of DLCs and other AHR agonists. There is also potential use for this AOP in risk management, as minimum allowable environmental levels can be customized to the sensitivity of the native species in the area under consideration.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Fox, G. A., Norstrom, R. J., Wigfield, D. C., and Kennedy, S. W. (1988) Porphyria in herring gulls: A biochemical response to chemical contamination of great lakes food chains. ‘’Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry’’ ‘’’7’’’ (10), 831-839
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Kennedy, S. W., and Fox, G. A. (1990) Highly carboxylated porphyrins as a biomarker of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in wildlife: Confirmation of their presence in Great Lakes herring gull chicks in the early 1970s and important methodological details. Chemosphere 21 (3), 407-415.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Kennedy, S. W., Fox, G. A., Trudeau, S. F., Bastien, L. J., and Jones, S. P. (1998) Highly carboxylated porphyrin concentration: A biochemical marker of PCB exposure in herring gulls. Marine Environmental Research 46 (1-5), 65-69.
- ↑ Thunell, S. (2000) Porphyrins, porphyrin metabolism and porphyrias. I. Update. Scand. J. Clin. Lab Invest 60 (7), 509-540.
- ↑ Baba, T., Mimura, J., Nakamura, N., Harada, N., Yamamoto, M., Morohashi, K., and Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. (2005) Intrinsic function of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor as a key factor in female reproduction. Mol. Cell Biol. 25 (22), 10040-10051.
- ↑ Denison, M. S., Soshilov, A. A., He, G., DeGroot, D. E., and Zhao, B. (2011) Exactly the same but different: promiscuity and diversity in the molecular mechanisms of action of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor. Toxicol. Sci. 124 (1), 1-22.
- ↑ Fernandez-Salguero, P. M., Pineau, T., Hilbert, D. M., McPhail, T., Lee, S. S., Kimura, S., Nebert, D. W., Rudikoff, S., Ward, J. M., and Gonzalez, F. J. (1995) Immune system impairment and hepatic fibrosis in mice lacking the dioxin-binding Ah receptor. Science 268 (5211), 722-726.
- ↑ Ichihara, S., Yamada, Y., Ichihara, G., Nakajima, T., Li, P., Kondo, T., Gonzalez, F. J., and Murohara, T. (2007) A role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in regulation of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27 (6), 1297-1304.
- ↑ Lahvis, G. P., Lindell, S. L., Thomas, R. S., McCuskey, R. S., Murphy, C., Glover, E., Bentz, M., Southard, J., and Bradfield, C. A. (2000) Portosystemic shunting and persistent fetal vascular structures in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-deficient mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U. S. A 97 (19), 10442-10447.
- ↑ Mimura, J., Yamashita, K., Nakamura, K., Morita, M., Takagi, T. N., Nakao, K., Ema, M., Sogawa, K., Yasuda, M., Katsuki, M., and Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. (1997) Loss of teratogenic response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mice lacking the Ah (dioxin) receptor. Genes Cells 2 (10), 645-654.
- ↑ Omiecinski, C. J., Vanden Heuvel, J. P., Perdew, G. H., and Peters, J. M. (2011) Xenobiotic metabolism, disposition, and regulation by receptors: from biochemical phenomenon to predictors of major toxicities. Toxicol. Sci. 120 Suppl 1, S49-S75.
- ↑ Schmidt, J. V., Su, G. H., Reddy, J. K., Simon, M. C., and Bradfield, C. A. (1996) Characterization of a murine Ahr null allele: involvement of the Ah receptor in hepatic growth and development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U. S. A 93 (13), 6731-6736.
- ↑ Thackaberry, E. A., Gabaldon, D. M., Walker, M. K., and Smith, S. M. (2002) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor null mice develop cardiac hypertrophy and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in the absence of cardiac hypoxia. Cardiovasc. Toxicol. 2 (4), 263-274.
- ↑ Zhang, N., Agbor, L. N., Scott, J. A., Zalobowski, T., Elased, K. M., Trujillo, A., Duke, M. S., Wolf, V., Walsh, M. T., Born, J. L., Felton, L. A., Wang, J., Wang, W., Kanagy, N. L., and Walker, M. K. (2010) An activated renin-angiotensin system maintains normal blood pressure in aryl hydrocarbon receptor heterozygous mice but not in null mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 80 (2), 197-204.
- ↑ Brunström, B. (1988) Sensitivity of embryos from duck, goose, herring gull, and various chicken breeds to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Poultry science 67 (1), 52-57.
- ↑ Carro, T., Taneyhill, L. A., and Ottinger, M. A. (2013) The effects of an environmentally relevant 58 congener polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on cardiac development in the chick embryo. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(6), 1325-31
- ↑ Gilbertson, M. (1983) Etiology of chick edema disease in herring gulls in the lower Great Lakes. Chemosphere 12 (3), 357-370.
- ↑ Lavoie, E. T., and Grasman, K. A. (2007) Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs 126 and 77 on mortality, deformities and post-hatch immune function in chickens. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 70 (6), 547-558.
- ↑ Wells, P. G., Lee, C. J., McCallum, G. P., Perstin, J., and Harper, P. A. (2010) Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. (196), 131-162.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Cripps, D. J., Peters, H. A., Gocmen, A., and Dogramici, I. (1984) Porphyria turcica due to hexachlorobenzene: a 20 to 30 year follow-up study on 204 patients. Br. J Dermatol. 111 (4), 413-422.
- ↑ Kewley, R. J., Whitelaw, M. L., and Chapman-Smith, A. (2004) The mammalian basic helix-loop-helix/PAS family of transcriptional regulators. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 36 (2), 189-204.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Smith, A. G., and Elder, G. H. (2010) Complex gene-chemical interactions: hepatic uroporphyria as a paradigm. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23 (4), 712-723.
- ↑ Wainwright, J. S., Hopkins, K. M., Bums Jr., T.A., and Di Giulio, R. T. (1995) Investigation of potential biomarkers of exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent in North Carolina rivers. Durham, NC.
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Mylchreest, E., and Charbonneau, M. (1997) Studies on the mechanism of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase inhibition in hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria in the female rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145 (1), 23-33.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 Davies, R., Clothier, B., Robinson, S. W., Edwards, R. E., Greaves, P., Luo, J., Gant, T. W., Chernova, T., and Smith, A. G. (2008) Essential role of the AH receptor in the dysfunction of heme metabolism induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21 (2), 330-340.
- ↑ Jones, K. G., and Sweeney, G. D. (1977) Association between induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and depression of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 17 (4), 631-637.
- ↑ Jones, K. G., and Sweeney, G. D. (1980) Dependence of the porphyrogenic effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxin upon inheritance of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase responsiveness. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 53 (1), 42-49.
- ↑ Smith, A. G., Francis, J. E., Kay, S. J., and Greig, J. B. (1981) Hepatic toxicity and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity following a single dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to mice. Biochem. Pharmacol. 30 (20), 2825-2830.
- ↑ Smith, A. G., Clothier, B., Robinson, S., Scullion, M. J., Carthew, P., Edwards, R., Luo, J., Lim, C. K., and Toledano, M. (1998) Interaction between iron metabolism and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in mice with variants of the Ahr gene: a hepatic oxidative mechanism. Mol. Pharmacol. 53 (1), 52-61.
- ↑ Hahn, M. E., Gasiewicz, T. A., Linko, P., and Goldstein, J. A. (1988) The role of the Ah locus in hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria. Studies in congenic C57BL/6J mice. Biochem. J. 254 (1), 245-254.
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 Lorenzen, A., Shutt, J. L., and Kennedy, S. W. (1997) Sensitivity of common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryo hepatocyte cultures to CYP1A induction and porphyrin accumulation by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and common tern egg extracts. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32 (2), 126-134.
- ↑ Greaves, P., Clothier, B., Davies, R., Higginson, F. M., Edwards, R. E., Dalton, T. P., Nebert, D. W., and Smith, A. G. (2005) Uroporphyria and hepatic carcinogenesis induced by polychlorinated biphenyls-iron interaction: absence in the Cyp1a2(-/-) knockout mouse. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331 (1), 147-152.
- ↑ Sinclair, P. R., Gorman, N., Dalton, T., Walton, H. S., Bement, W. J., Sinclair, J. F., Smith, A. G., and Nebert, D. W. (1998) Uroporphyria produced in mice by iron and 5-aminolaevulinic acid does not occur in Cyp1a2(-/-) null mutant mice. Biochem. J. 330 ( Pt 1'), 149-153.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Smith, A. G., Clothier, B., Carthew, P., Childs, N. L., Sinclair, P. R., Nebert, D. W., and Dalton, T. P. (2001) Protection of the Cyp1a2(-/-) null mouse against uroporphyria and hepatic injury following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 173 (2), 89-98.
- ↑ Phillips, J. D., Kushner, J. P., Bergonia, H. A., and Franklin, M. R. (2011) Uroporphyria in the Cyp1a2-/- mouse. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 47 (4), 249-254.
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Gorman, N., Ross, K. L., Walton, H. S., Bement, W. J., Szakacs, J. G., Gerhard, G. S., Dalton, T. P., Nebert, D. W., Eisenstein, R. S., Sinclair, J. F., and Sinclair, P. R. (2002) Uroporphyria in mice: thresholds for hepatic CYP1A2 and iron. Hepatology 35 (4), 912-921.
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Lorenzen, A., Kennedy, S. W., Bastien, L. J., and Hahn, M. E. (1997) Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated porphyrin accumulation and induction of cytochrome P4501A in chicken embryo hepatocytes. Biochemical Pharmacology 53 (3), 373-384.
- ↑ Phillips, J. D., Bergonia, H. A., Reilly, C. A., Franklin, M. R., and Kushner, J. P. (2007) A porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase causes porphyria cutanea tarda. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A 104 (12), 5079-5084.
- ↑ Kawanishi, S., Mizutani, T., and Sano, S. (1978) Induction of porphyrin synthesis in chick embryo liver cell culture by synthetic polychlorobiphenyl isomers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 540 (1), 83-92.
- ↑ Miranda, C. L., Henderson, M. C., Wang, J. L., Nakaue, H. S., and Buhler, D. R. (1992) Comparative effects of the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1242, on porphyrin and xenobiotic metabolism in kidney of Japanese quail and rat. Comp Biochem. Physiol C. 103 (1), 149-152.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Sano, S., Kawanishi, S., and Seki, Y. (1985) Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl with special reference to porphyrin metabolism. Environ. Health Perspect. 59, 137-143.
- ↑ Elder, G. H., and Sheppard, D. M. (1982) Immunoreactive uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase is unchanged in porphyria caused by TCDD and hexachlorobenzene. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 109 (1), 113-120.
- ↑ Elder, G. H., Urquhart, A. J., De Salamanca, R. E., Munoz, J. J., and Bonkovsky, H. L. (1985) Immunoreactive uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in the liver in porphyria cutanea tarda. Lancet 2 (8449), 229-233.
- ↑ Kennedy, S. W. (1988) Studies on Porphyria as an Indicator of Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure. Carleton University
- ↑ Lundvall, O., and Enerback, L. (1969) Hepatic fluorescence in porphyria cutanea tarda studied in fine needle aspiration biopsy smears. J Clin Pathol 22 (6), 704-709.
- ↑ Frank, J., and Poblete-Gutierrez, P. (2010) Porphyria cutanea tarda--when skin meets liver. Best. Pract. Res. Clin Gastroenterol. 24(5), 735-745.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Lambrecht, R. W., Sinclair, P. R., Bement, W. J., Sinclair, J. F., Carpenter, H. M., Buhler, D. R., Urquhart, A. J., and Elder, G. H. (1988) Hepatic uroporphyrin accumulation and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in cultured chick-embryo hepatocytes and in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and mice treated with polyhalogenated aromatic compounds. Biochem. J. 253 (1), 131-138.
- ↑ Marks, G. S., Zelt, D. T., and Cole, S. P. (1982) Alterations in the heme biosynthetic pathway as an index of exposure to toxins. Can. J. Physiol Pharmacol. 60 (7), 1017-1026.
- ↑ Sassa, S., Sugita, O., Ohnuma, N., Imajo, S., Okumura, T., Noguchi, T., and Kappas, A. (1986) Studies of the influence of chloro-substituent sites and conformational energy in polychlorinated biphenyls on uroporphyrin formation in chick-embryo liver cell cultures. Biochem. J. 235 (1), 291-296.
- ↑ Goldstein, J. A., McKinney, J. D., Lucier, G. W., Hickman, P., Bergman, H., and Moore, J. A. (1976) Toxicological assessment of hexachlorobiphenyl isomers and 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in chicks. II. Effects on drug metabolism and porphyrin accumulation. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 36 (1), 81-92.
- ↑ McKinney, J. D., Chae, K., Gupta, B. N., Moore, J. A., and Goldstein, H. A. (1976) Toxicological assessment of hexachlorobiphenyl isomers and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran in chicks. I. Relationship of chemical parameters. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 36 (1), 65-80.
- ↑ Miranda, C. L., Henderson, M. C., Wang, J. L., Nakaue, H. S., and Buhler, D. R. (1987) Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on porphyrin synthesis and cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases in small intestine and liver of Japanese quail. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 20 (1-2), 27-35.
- ↑ Goldstein, J. A., Linko, P., and Bergman, H. (1982). Induction of porphyria in the rat by chronic versus acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Biochem. Pharmacol. 31 (8), 1607-1613.
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 eki, Y., Kawanishi, S., and Sano, S. (1987). Mechanism of PCB-induced porphyria and yusho disease. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 514, 222-234.
- ↑ Gu, C., Goodarzi, M., Yang, X., Bian, Y., Sun, C., and Jiang, X. (2012). Predictive insight into the relationship between AhR binding property and toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by PLS-derived QSAR. Toxicol. Lett. 208 (3), 269-274.
- ↑ Hestermann, E. V., Stegeman, J. J., and Hahn, M. E. (2000). Relative contributions of affinity and intrinsic efficacy to aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand potency. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol 168 (2), 160-172.
- ↑ Li, F., Li, X., Liu, X., Zhang, L., You, L., Zhao, J., and Wu, H. (2011). Docking and 3D-QSAR studies on the Ah receptor binding affinities of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 32 (3), 478-485.
- ↑ Caballes F.R., Sendi, H., and Bonkovsky, H. L. (2012). Hepatitis C, porphyria cutanea tarda and liver iron: an update. Liver Int. 32 (6), 880-893.
- ↑ Bonkovsky, H. L. (1989). Mechanism of iron potentiation of hepatic uroporphyria: studies in cultured chick embryo liver cells. Hepatology 10 (3), 354-364.
- ↑ James, C. A., and Marks, G. S. (1989). Inhibition of chick embryo hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase by components of xenobiotic-treated chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Can. J Physiol Pharmacol. 67 (3), 246-249.
- Ippen H. (1977). Treatment of porphyria cutanea tarda by phlebotomy. Semin Hema-t ol.14, 253-9
- Poulos, T. L. (2014). Heme Enzyme Structure and Function. Chemical Reviews, 114(7), 3919–3962.
- Tchernitchko et al (2012) Comprehensive cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene analysis in French caucasian patients with familial and sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda. Bristish Journal of Dermatology, 166(2), 425-429.
- Christiansen et al (2000) Association between CYP1A2 polymorphism and susceptibility to porphyria cutanea tarda. Human Genetics. 107(6), 612–614.
- Danton, M., and Lim, C. K. (2007). Porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed. Chromatogr. 21 (7), 661-663
- Sinclair, P. R., Gorman, N., Tsyrlov, I. B., Fuhr, U., Walton, H. S., and Sinclair, J. F. (1998b). Uroporphyrinogen oxidation catalyzed by human cytochromes P450. Drug Metab Dispos. 26 (10), 1019-1025.
- Smith, A. G., & Chernova, T. (2009). Disruption of heme synthesis by polyhalogenated aromatics. Advances in Molecular Toxicology, 3, 161-210.