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Event: 944

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

dimerization, AHR/ARNT

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
dimerization, AHR/ARNT
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Molecular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
eukaryotic cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
protein dimerization activity aryl hydrocarbon receptor increased
protein dimerization activity aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AHR activation to ELS mortality, via VEGF KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
AhR mediated mortality, via COX-2 KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
AHR mediated epigenetic reproductive failure KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AhR activation leading to preeclampsia KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Ahr mediated early stage mortality via craniofacial malformations KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Ahr mediated early stage mortality via cardiovascular toxicity KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
chicken Gallus gallus High NCBI
zebrafish Danio rerio High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
Coturnix japonica Coturnix japonica High NCBI
Phasianus colchicus Phasianus colchicus High NCBI
rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss High NCBI
Pagrus major Pagrus major High NCBI
Acipenser fulvescens Acipenser fulvescens High NCBI
Acipenser transmontanus Acipenser transmontanus High NCBI
Salmo salar Salmo salar High NCBI
Xenopus laevis Xenopus laevis High NCBI
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
Ambystoma mexicanum Ambystoma mexicanum High NCBI
Microgadus tomcod Microgadus tomcod High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
Embryo High
Development High
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Structure and Function of ARNT

  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a member of the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family of proteins (Gu et al 2000).
  • PAS proteins share highly conserved PAS domains (Gu et al 2000).
  • PAS proteins act as transcriptional regulators in response to environmental and physiological cues (Gu et al 2000).
  • ARNTs have numerous key roles in vertebrates related to responses to developmental and environmental cues.

Isoforms of ARNT:

  • Over time ARNT has undergone gene duplication and diversification in vertebrates, which has resulted in three clades of ARNT, namely ARNT1, ARNT2, and ARNT3.
  • Each clade can include multiple isoforms and splice variants (Hill et al 2009; Lee et al 2007; Lee et al 2011; Powel & Hahn 2000; Tanguay et al 2000).
  • ARNT1s have been demonstrated to function predominantly through heterodimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF1α) (Prasch et al 2004; 2006; Wang et al 1995).
  • ARNT2s are believed to function predominantly through heterodimerization with Single Minded (SIM) (Hirose et al 1996).
  • ARNT3s, which are also known as ARNT-like (ARNTL), Brain and Muscle ARNT-like-1 (BMAL1), or Morphine Preference 3 (MOP3), are believed to function predominantly through heterodimerization with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) (Gekakis et al 1998).

Roles of ARNTs in mammals:

  • ARNT1 functions in normal vascular and hematopoietic development (Kozak et al 1997; Maltepe et al 1997; Abbott & Buckalew 2000).
  • ARNT2 functions in development of the hypothalamus and nervous system (Hosoya et al 2001; Keith et al 2001).
  • ARNT3 functions in biological rhythms (Gekakis et al 1998).

Roles of ARNTs in other taxa:

  • ARNTs have been demonstrated to have roles in development of the heart, brain, liver, and possibly the peripheral nervous system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) (Hill et al 2009).
  • Roles of ARNTs in other taxa have not been sufficiently investigated to date.

Interaction with AHR

  • Both ARNT1s and ARNT2s are able to heterodimerize with AhR and interact with dioxin-responsive elements on the DNA in in vitro systems (Hirose et al 1996; Lee et al 2007; Lee et al 2011; Prasch et al 2004).
  • Selective knockdown of ARNTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) demonstrates that ARNT1s, but not ARNT2s, are required for activation of the AhR in vivo (Prasch et al 2004; 2006).
  • In limited investigations ARNT3 has not been demonstrated to interact with the AHR either in vivo or in vitro (Jain et al 1998). 

Upon ligand binding, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) migrates to the nucleus where it dissociates from the cytosolic complex and forms a heterodimer with AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) (Mimura and Fujii-Kuriyama 2003). The AHR-ARNT complex then binds to a xenobiotic response element (XRE) found in the promoter of an AHR-regulated gene and recruits co-regulators such as CREB binding protein/p300, steroid receptor co-activator (SRC) 1, SRC-2, SRC-3 and nuclear receptor interacting protein 1, leading to induction or repression of gene expression (Fujii-Kuriyama and Kawajiri 2010). Expression levels of several genes, including phase I (e.g. cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, CYP1B, CYP2A) and phase II enzymes (e.g. uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs)), as well as genes involved in cell proliferation (transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-1 beta), cell cycle regulation (p27, jun-B) and apoptosis (Bax), are regulated through this mechanism (Fujii-Kuriyama and Kawajiri 2010; Giesy et al. 2006; Mimura and Fujii-Kuriyama 2003; Safe 1994).

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

AhR/ARNT heterodimerization can be measured in several ways:

1) The active AHR complexed with ARNT can be measured using protein-DNA interaction assays. Two methods are described in detail by Perez-Romero and Imperiale (Perez-Romero and Imperiale 2007). Chromatin immunoprecipitation measures the interaction of proteins with specific genomic regions in vivo. It involves the treatment of cells with formaldehyde to crosslink neighboring protein-protein and protein-DNA molecules. Nuclear fractions are isolated, the genomic DNA is sheared, and nuclear lysates are used in immunoprecipitations with an antibody against the protein of interest. After reversal of the crosslinking, the associated DNA fragments are sequenced. Enrichment of specific DNA sequences represents regions on the genome that the protein of interest is associated with in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) provides a rapid method to study DNA-binding protein interactions in vitro. This relies on the fact that complexes of protein and DNA migrate through a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel more slowly than free DNA fragments. The protein-DNA complex components are then identified with appropriate antibodies. The EMSA assay was found to be consistent with the luciferase reporter gene assay (in chicken hepatoma cells dosed with dioxin-like compounds (Heid et al. 2001).

2) Species-specific differences in dimerization and differences in dimerization between ARNT isoform and AhR isoform combinations have been assessed through luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assays utilizing COS-7 cells transfected with expression constructs of AhR and ARNT isoforms of mammals, birds, and fishes (Abnet et al 1999; Bak et al 2013; Doering et al 2014; 2015; Hansson & Hahn 2008; Hirose et al 1996; Karchner et al 1999; Lee et al 2007; Lee et al 2011; Prasch et al 2004; Wirgin et al 2011). However, this method is indirect as it also includes binding of a ligand to the AhR, and interaction of the AhR/ARNT heterodimer with dioxin-responsive elements on the DNA.

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Taxonomic Presence of ARNT genes:

  • ARNTs have been identified in all tetrapods investigated to date (Drutel et al 1996; Hirose et al 1996; Hoffman et al 1991; Lee et al 2007; Lee et al 2011).
  • ARNTs have been identified in a great phylogenetic diversity of fishes, including early fishes (Doering et al 2014; 2016).
  • ARNT has been identified in investigated invertebrates (Powell-Coffman et al 1998).

Taxonomic Applicability of Heterodimerization of ARNT isoforms with AhR isoforms:

  •  In mouse (Mus mus) and chicken (Gallus gallus) both the ARNT1 and ARNT2 were capable of heterdimerizing with AHR and interacting with dioxin-responsive elements on the DNA in vitro (Hirose et al 1996; Lee et al 2007; Lee et al 2011; Prasch et al 2004). However, no studies have yet confirmed involvement of both ARNT1 and ARNT2 in vivo.
  • In zebrafish, all adverse effects of DLCs so far examined in vivo are mediated solely by ARNT1 based on knockdown studies, although ARNT2 is capable of heterodimerizing with AHR2 and interacting with dioxin-responsive elements on the DNA in vitro (Prasch et al 2004; Prasch et al 2006). In addition to AHRs of zebrafish, AHRs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod), mummichog, rainbow trout, and red seabream (Pagrus major) have been demonstrated to heterodimerize with ARNT1 in vitro (Abnet et al 1999; Bak et al 2013; Hansson & Hahn 2008; Karchner et al 1999; Wirgin et al 2011), while AHRs of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have been demonstrated to heterodimerize with ARNT2 in vitro (Doering et al 2014b; 2015b; Prasch et al 2004; 2006). 

This mechanism is conserved across species. Mammals possess a single AHR, whereas birds and fish express multiple isoforms, and all three express multiple ARNT isoforms. Not all of the isoforms identified are functionally active. For example, killifish AHR1 and AHR2 are active and display different transcription profiles, whereas zebrafish AHR2 and ARNT2 are active in mediating xenobiotic-mediated toxicity and AHR1 is inactive (Hahn et al. 2006; Prasch et al. 2006).

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

1. Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., and Kawajiri, K. (2010). Molecular mechanisms of the physiological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli. Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B Phys. Biol. Sci. 86(1), 40-53.

2. Giesy, J. P., Kannan, K., Blankenship, A. L., Jones, P. D., and Newsted, J. L. (2006). Toxicology of PCBs and related compounds. In Endocrine Disruption Biological Bases for Health Effects in Wildlife and Humans (D.O.Norris and J.A.Carr, Eds.), pp. 245-331. Oxford University Press, New York.

3. Hahn, M. E., Karchner, S. I., Evans, B. R., Franks, D. G., Merson, R. R., and Lapseritis, J. M. (2006). Unexpected diversity of aryl hydrocarbon receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates: insights from comparative genomics. J. Exp. Zool. A Comp Exp. Biol. 305(9), 693-706.

4. Heid, S. E., Walker, M. K., and Swanson, H. I. (2001). Correlation of cardiotoxicity mediated by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Toxicol. Sci 61(1), 187-196.

5. Mimura, J., and Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. (2003). Functional role of AhR in the expression of toxic effects by TCDD. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects 1619(3), 263-268.

6. Perez-Romero, P., and Imperiale, M. J. (2007). Assaying protein-DNA interactions in vivo and in vitro using chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Methods Mol. Med. 131, 123-139.

7. Prasch, A. L., Tanguay, R. L., Mehta, V., Heideman, W., and Peterson, R. E. (2006). Identification of zebrafish ARNT1 homologs: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity in the developing zebrafish requires ARNT1. Mol. Pharmacol. 69(3), 776-787.

8. Safe, S. (1994). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Environmental impact, biochemical and toxic responses, and implications for risk assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 24(2), 87-149.

Abnet, C.C.; Tanguay, R.L.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. 1999. Transactivation activity of human, zebrafish, and rainbow trout aryl hydrocarbon receptors expressed in COS-7 cells: Greater insight into species differences in toxic potency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 159, 41-51.

Andreasen, E.A.; Hahn, M.E.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E.; Tanguay, R.L. 2002. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 1 is a novel vertebrate receptor. Molec. Pharmacol. 62, 234-249.

Andreasen, E.A.; Tanguay, R.L.; Peterson, R.E.; Heideman, W. 2002. Identification of a critical amino acid in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (15), 13210-13218.

Antkiewicz, D.S.; Burns, C.G.; Carney, S.A.; Peterson, R.E.; Heideman, W. 2005. Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 84, 368-377.

Bak, S.M.; Lida, M.; Hirano, M.; Iwata, H.; Kim, E.Y. 2013. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implications of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47 (6), 2877-2885.

Billiard, S.M.; Hahn, M.E.; Franks, D.G.; Peterson, R.E.; Bols, N.C.; Hodson, P.V. (2002). Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to teleost aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 133 (1), 55-68.

Chen, G.; Bunce, N.J. (2003). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers as Ah receptor agonists and antagonists. Toxicol. Sci. 76 (2), 310-320.

Denison, M.S.; Heath-Pagliuso, S. The Ah receptor: a regulator of the biochemical and toxicological actions of structurally diverse chemicals. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1998, 61 (5), 557-568.

Doering, J.A.; Tang, S.; Peng, H.; Eisner, B.K.; Sun, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Wiseman, S.; Hecker, M. 2016. High conservation in transcriptomic and proteomic response of white sturgeon to equipotent concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, PCB 77, and benzo[a]pyrene. Enviro. Sci. Technol. 50 (9), 4826-4835.

Doering, J.A.; Farmahin, R.; Wiseman, S.; Kennedy, S.; Giesy J.P.; Hecker, M. 2014. Functionality of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and implications for the risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds. Enviro. Sci. Technol. 48, 8219-8226.

Doering, J.A.; Farmahin, R.; Wiseman, S.; Beitel, S.C.; Kennedy, S.W.; Giesy, J.P.; Hecker, M. 2015. Differences in activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors of white sturgeon relative to lake sturgeon are predicted by identities of key amino acids in the ligand binding domain. Enviro. Sci. Technol. 49, 4681-4689.

Doering, J.A.; Wiseman, S; Beitel, S.C.; Giesy, J.P.; Hecker, M. 2014b. Identification and expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR1 and AhR2) provide insight in an evolutionary context regarding sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to dioxin-like compounds. Aquat. Toxicol. 150, 27-35.

Drutel, G.; Kathmann, M.; Heron, A.; Schwartz, J.; Arrang, J. (1996). Cloning and selective expression in brain and kidney of ARNT2 homologous to the Ah receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 225 (2), 333-339.

Farmahin, R.; Crump, D.; O’Brien, J.M.; Jones, S.P.; Kennedy, S.W. (2016). Time-dependent transcriptomic and biochemical responses of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are explained by AHR activation time. Biochem. Pharmacol. 115 (1), 134-143.

Farmahin, R.; Manning, G.E.; Crump, D.; Wu, D.; Mundy, L.J.; Jones, S.P.; Hahn, M.E.; Karchner, S.I.; Giesy, J.P.; Bursian, S.J.; Zwiernik, M.J.; Fredricks, T.B.; Kennedy, S.W. 2013. Amino acid sequence of the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 predicts sensitivity of wild birds to effects of dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol. Sci. 131 (1), 139-152.

Farmahin, R.; Wu, D.; Crump, D.; Herve, J.C.; Jones, S.P.; Hahn, M.E.; Karchner, S.I.; Giesy, J.P.; Bursian, S.J.; Zwiernik, M.J.; Kennedy, S.W. 2012. Sequence and in vitro function of chicken, ring-necked pheasant, and Japanese quail AHR1 predict in vivo sensitivity to dioxins. Enviro. Sci. Toxicol. 46 (5), 2967-2975.

Gekakis, N., Staknis, D., Nguyen, H.B., Davis, F.C., Wilsbacher, L.D., King, D.P., Takahashi, J.S., Weitz, C.J. 1998. Role of the CLOCK protein in the mammalian circadian mechanism. Science. 280, 1564-1569.

Gu, Y.; Hogenesch, J.B.; Bradfield, C.A. 2000. The PAS superfamily: Sensors of environmental and developmental signals. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 40, 519-561.

Hansson, M.C.; Hahn, M.E. 2008. Functional properties of the four Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2) isoforms. Aquat. Toxicol. 86, 121-130.

Hill, A.J.; King-Heiden, T.C.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. (2009). Potential roles of Arnt2 in zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish. 6 (1), 79-91.

Hirose, K., Morita, M., Ema, M., Mimura, J., Hamada, H., Fujii, H., Saijo, Y., Gotoh, O., Sogawa, K., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. 1996. cDNA cloning and tissue-specific expression of a novel basic helix-loop-helix/ PAS factor (Arnt2) with close sequence similarity to the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (Arnt). Mol. Cell. Biol. 16, 1706-1713.

Hoffman, E.C., Reyes, H., Chu, F.F., Sander, F., Conley, L.H., Brooks, B.A., Hankinson, O. 1991. Cloning of a factor required for activity of the Ah (dioxin) receptor. Science. 252, 954-958.

Karchner, S.I.; Powell, W.H.; Hahn, M.E. 1999. Identification and functional characterization of two highly divergent aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR1 and AHR2) in the Teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Evidence for a novel subfamily of ligand-binding basic helix loop helix-Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) factors. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 33814-33824.

Lavine, J.A.; Rowatt, A.J.; Klimova, T.; Whitington, A.J.; Dengler, E.; Beck, C.; Powell, W.H. 2005. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis: two AhR1 paralogs exhibit low affinity for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Toxicol. Sci. 88 (1), 60-72.

Lee, J., Kim, E., Iwata, H., Tanabe, S. 2007. Molecular characterization and tissue distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator isoforms, ARNT1 and ARNT2, and identification of novel splice variants in common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. 145, 379-393.

Lee, J., Kim, E., Iwabuchi, H., Iwata, H. (2011). Molecular and functional characterization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) and ARNT2 in chicken (Gallus gallus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 153 (3), 269-279.

Mandl, M.; Depping, R. (2014). Hypoxia-inducible aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) (HIF-1B): Is it a rare exception? Mol. Med. 20 (1), 215-220.

Murk, A.J.; Legler, J.; Denison, M.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Van De Guchte, C.; Brouwer, A. (1996). Chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX): A novel in vitro bioassay for Ah receptor active compounds in sediments and pore water. Toxicol. Sci. 33 (1), 149-160.

Oka, K.; Kohno, S.; Ohta, Y.; Guillette, L.J.; Iguchi, T.; Katsu, Y. (2016). Molecular cloning and characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptors and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocators in the American alligator. Gen. Comp. Endo. 238, 13-22.

Powell, W.H.; Hahn, M.E. (2002). Identification and functional characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor 2a from the estuarine teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus: Interaction of HIF-2a with two ARNT2 splice variants. J. Exp. Zoo. A. 294 (1), 17-29.

Prasch, A.L.; Tanguay, R.L.; Mehta, V.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. (2006). Identification of zebrafish ARNT1 homologs: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity in the developing zebrafish requires ARNT1. Mol. Pharmacol. 69 (3), 776-787.

Prasch, A.L.; Teraoka, H.; Carney, S.A.; Dong, W.; Hiraga, T.; Stegeman, J.J.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. 2003. Toxicol. Sci. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin developmental toxicity in zebrafish. 76 (1), 138-150.

Shoots, J.; Fraccalvieri, D.; Franks, D.G.; Denison, M.S.; Hahn, M.E.; Bonati, L.; Powell, W.H. 2015. An aryl hydrocarbon receptor from the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum exhibits low sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Enviro. Sci. Technol. 49, 6993-7001.

Tanguay, R.L.; Abnett, C.C.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. 1999. Cloning and characterization of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1444, 35-48.

Tanguay, R.L.; Andreasen, E.; Heideman, W.; Peterson, R.E. (2000). Identification and expression of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) cDNAs from zebrafish with distinct functions. BBA. 1494 (1-2), 117-128.

Van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Brunstrom, B.; Cook, P.; Feeley, M.; Giesy, J.P.; Hanberg, A.; Hasegawa, R.; Kennedy, S.W.; Kubiak, T.; Larsen, J.C.; van Leeuwen, R.X.R.; Liem, A.K.D.; Nolt, C.; Peterson, R.E.; Poellinger, L.; Safe, S.; Schrenk, D.; Tillitt, D.; Tysklind, M.; Younes, M.; Waern, F.; Zacharewski, T. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PECDFs for human and wildlife. Enviro. Hlth. Persp. 1998, 106, 775-792.

Van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Dension, M.; De Vito, M.; Farland, W.; Feeley, M.; Fiedler, H.; Hakansson, H.; Hanberg, A.; Haws, L.; Rose, M.; Safe, S.; Schrenk, D.; Tohyama, C.; Tritscher, A.; Tuomisto, J.; Tysklind, M.; Walker, N.; Peterson, R.E. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol. Sci. 93 (2), 223-241.

Waller, C.L.; McKinney, J.D. (1992). Comparative molecular field analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioixns, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls. J. Med. Chem. 35, 3660-2666.

Waller, C.; McKinney, J. (1995). Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds: model validation and Ah receptor characterization. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8, 847-858.

Wang, G.L., Jiang, B.H., Rue, E.A., Semenza, G.L. 1995. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated by cellular O2 tension. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5510-5514.

Whitlock, J.P.; Okino, S.T.; Dong, L.Q.; Ko, H.S.P.; Clarke Katzenberg, R.; Qiang, M.; Li, W. 1996. Induction of cytochrome P4501A1: a model for analyzing mammalian gene transcription. Faseb. J. 10, 809-818.

Whyte, J.J.; Jung, R.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E. (2008). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in fish as a biomarker of chemical exposure. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 30 (4), 347-570.

Wirgin, I.; Roy, N.K.; Loftus, M.; Chambers, R.C.; Franks, D.G.; Hahn, M.E. 2011. Mechanistic basis of resistance to PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River. Science. 331, 1322-1324.

Jain, S.; Maltepe, E.; Lu, M.M.; Simon, C.; Bradfield, C.A. 1998. Expression of ARNT, ARNT2, HIF1 alpha, HIF2 alpha, and Ah receptor mRNAs in the developing mouse. Mech. Dev. 73, 117-123.