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Altered, Cardiovascular development/function leads to Increase, Early Life Stage Mortality
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to early life stage mortality, via reduced VEGF||adjacent||High||Low||Arthur Author (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
|Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation leading to early life stage mortality, via increased COX-2||adjacent||High||Low||Allie Always (send email)||Open for citation & comment||TFHA/WNT Endorsed|
Life Stage Applicability
Key Event Relationship Description
Changes in heart morphology can result in decreased cardiac output and are associated with myocardial disease, abnormalities in cardiac loading, rhythm disorders, ischemia (restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism), and cardiac compression. Severe cardiac dysfunction can result in congestive fetal heart failure (inability of the heart to deliver adequate blood flow to organs) leading to fluid build-up in tissues and cavities (edema and effusion, respectively). Fluid buildup exerts a positive pressure on fetal cardiac chambers, which further limits the diastolic ventricular filling reserve, potentiating the diminished cardiac output and leading to fetal death (Thakur et al. 2013).
It remains unclear whether edema plays an essential role in causing fetal death, or whether it simply accelerates the rate of deterioration; nonetheless, it is a reliable indicator of cardiotoxicity.
Evidence Supporting this KER
The connection between altered cardiovascular developement during embryogenesis, diminished cardiac output and embryonic death have been well studied (Thakur et al. 2013; kopf and Walker 2009)
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There is no doubt that severely altered cardiovascular development early in embryogenesis causes embryonic death, however the precise sequence of events leading to heart failure remains to be elucidated.
Known modulating factors
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Domain of Applicability
Cardiovasular remodelling and cardiac failure leading to embryo death has been observed in mammals (kopf and Walker 2009, Thakur et al.2013), fish (kopf and Walker 2009) and chickens (kopf and Walker 2009). Although the chick is preferenrially used as a lab model for developemental studies, this KER likely extends to other avian species aswell.
1. Thakur, V., Fouron, J. C., Mertens, L., and Jaeggi, E. T. (2013). Diagnosis and management of fetal heart failure. Can. J Cardiol. 29(7), 759-767.
2. Kopf, P. G., and Walker, M. K. (2009). Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides. J. Environ. Sci. Health C. Environ. Carcinog. Ecotoxicol. Rev. 27(4), 276-285.
3. Antkiewicz, D. S., Burns, C. G., Carney, S. A., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2005). Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 84(2), 368-377.
4. Belair, C. D., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2001). Disruption of erythropoiesis by dioxin in the zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 222(4), 581-594.
5. Canga, L., Paroli, L., Blanck, T. J., Silver, R. B., and Rifkind, A. B. (1993). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases cardiac myocyte intracellular calcium and progressively impairs ventricular contractile responses to isoproterenol and to calcium in chick embryo hearts. Mol. Pharmacol. 44(6), 1142-1151.
6. Cheung, M. O., Gilbert, E. F., and Peterson, R. E. (1981). Cardiovascular teratogenicity of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the chick embryo. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 61(2), 197-204.
7. Henry, T. R., Spitsbergen, J. M., Hornung, M. W., Abnet, C. C., and Peterson, R. E. (1997). Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 142(1), 56-68.
8. Henshel, D. S., Hehn, B. M., Vo, M. T., and Steeves, J. D. (1993). A short-term test for dioxin teratogenicity using chicken embryos. In Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Volume 2 (J.W.Gorsuch, F.J.Dwyer, C.G.Ingersoll, and T.W.La Point, Eds.), pp. 159-174. American Society of Testing and materials, Philedalphia.
9. Plavicki, J., Hofsteen, P., Peterson, R. E., and Heideman, W. (2013). Dioxin inhibits zebrafish epicardium and proepicardium development. Toxicol. Sci. 131(2), 558-567.
10. Carney, S. A., Prasch, A. L., Heideman, W., and Peterson, R. E. (2006). Understanding dioxin developmental toxicity using the zebrafish model. Birth Defects Res. A Clin Mol. Teratol. 76(1), 7-18.
11. Walker, M. K., and Catron, T. F. (2000). Characterization of cardiotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related chemicals during early chick embryo development. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167(3), 210-221.
12. Walker, M. K., Pollenz, R. S., and Smith, S. M. (1997). Expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator during chick cardiogenesis is consistent with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced heart defects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 143(2), 407-419.