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Key Event Title
Reduced, Swimming performance
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP||Point of Contact||Author Status||OECD Status|
|DIO2i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|DIO2i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Arthur Author (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|DIO1i posterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Agnes Aggy (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|DIO1i anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Allie Always (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|TPOi anterior swim bladder||KeyEvent||Evgeniia Kazymova (send email)||Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome||EAGMST Approved|
|Lysyl oxidase inhibition||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Open for adoption|
|GR Agonism Leading to Impaired Fin Regeneration||KeyEvent||Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email)||Open for citation & comment|
Key Event Description
Adequate swimming performance in fish is essential for behaviour such as foraging, predator avoidance and reproduction.
How It Is Measured or Detected
For fish larvae, automated observation and tracking systems are commercially available and increasingly used for measuring swimming performance including distance travelled, duration of movements, swimming speed, etc. This kind of measurements is often included in publications describing effects of chemicals in zebrafish larvae (Hagenaars et al., 2014; Stinckens et al., 2016; Vergauwen et al., 2015).
For juvenile and adult fish, measurements of swim performance vary. However, in some circumstances, swim tunnels have been used to measure various data (Fu et al., 2013).
Little and Finger (1990) discussed swimming behavior as an indicator of sublethal toxicity in fish.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable to fish and tho other taxa that rely on swimming to support vital behaviours.
Life stage: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across all free-swimming life stages, i.e., post-embryonic life stages.
Sex: Importance of swimming performance for natural behaviour is generally applicable across sexes.
Fu C, Cao ZD, Fu SJ. 2013. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capactities. The Journal of Experimental Biology 216:3164-3174. doi:10.1242/jeb.084244
Hagenaars, A., Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Bervoets, L., Knapen, D., 2014. PFOS affects posterior swim bladder chamber inflation and swimming performanceof zebrafish larvae. Aquat. Toxicol. 157, 225–235.
Little EE, Finger SE. 1990. Swimming behavior as an indicator of sublethal toxicity in fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 9(1):13-19.
Stinckens, E., Vergauwen, L., Schroeder, A.L., Maho, W., Blackwell, B., Witter, H.,Blust, R., Ankley, G.T., Covaci, A., Villenueve, D.L., Knapen, D., 2016. Disruption of thyroid hormone balance after 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure causes swim bladder inflation impairment—part II: zebrafish. Aquat. Toxicol. 173:204-17.
Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Maho, Walid; Stickens, Evelyn; Hagenaars, An; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries. 2014. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test. Chemosphere. 139: 9-17.