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Event: 12

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) Inhibition

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
AchE Inhibition

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term
eukaryotic cell

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term
nervous system

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
acetylcholinesterase activity acetylcholinesterase decreased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AChE inhibition - acute mortality MolecularInitiatingEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome Under Development
AChE Inhibition Leading to Neurodegeneration MolecularInitiatingEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AChE inhibition - acute mortality via predation MolecularInitiatingEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

"Acetylcholinesterase is found primarily in blood, brain, and muscle, and regulates the level of the neurotransmitter ACh [acetylcholine] at cholinergic synapses of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Acetylcholinesterase features an anionic site (glutamate residue), and an esteratic site (serine hydroxyl group) (Wilson, 2010; Soreq, 2001). In response to a stimulus, ACh is released into the synaptic cleft and binds to the receptor protein, resulting in changes to the flow of ions across the cell, thereby signaling nerve and muscle activity. The signal is stopped when the amine of ACh binds at the anionic site of AChE, and aligns the ester of ACh to the serine hydroxyl group of the enzyme. Acetylcholine is subsequently hydrolyzed, resulting in a covalent bond with the serine hydroxyl group and the subsequent release of choline, followed by a rapid hydrolysis of the enzyme to form free AChE and acetic acid (Wilson, 2010; Soreq, 2001)." [From Russom et al. 2014. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 33: 2157-2169]

Molecular target gene symbol: ACHE

KEGG enzyme: EC 3.1.1.7

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?
  • Direct measures of AChE activity levels can be made using the modified Ellman method, although selective inhibitors that remove other cholinesterases not directly related to cholinergic responses (e.g., butyrylcholinesterase) are required [45,46].
  • Radiometric methods have been identified as better for measuring inhibition because of carbamylation (carbamate exposure) [20,46,47].
  • TOXCAST: NVS_ENZ_hAChE
  • A direct measure of cholinesterase activity levels can be made within the relevant tissues after in vivo exposure, specifically the brain as well as red blood cells in mammals. Some analytical methods used to measure cholinesterase activity may not distinguish between butyrylcholinesterase, which is found with AChE in plasma and some skeletal and muscle tissues. Although the structure of butyrylcholinesterase is very similar to AChE, its biological function is not clear, and its activity is not associated with cholinergic response covered under this AOP (Lushington et al., 2006). Therefore experimental procedures used to measure cholinesterase as well as the tissue analyzed should be considered when evaluating studies reporting AChE inhibition (Wilson 2010; Wilson and Henderson 2007). For measuring AChE levels, the Ellman method is recommended with some modifications (Ellman et al., 1961; Wilson et al., 1996) while radiometric methods have been identified as better for measuring inhibition due to carbamylation (carbamate exposure) (see Wilson 2010; Wilson et al., 1996; Johnson and Russell 1975).
  • In order to effectively bind to the AChE enzyme, thion forms of OPs (i.e., RO)3P=S) must first undergo a metabolic activation via mixed function oxidases to yield the active, oxon form (Fukuto 1990). Estimating the potential toxicity in whole organisms based on in vitro data may be problematic since metabolic activation may be required (e.g., phosphorothionates) and may not be reflected in the in vitro test result (Guo et al. 2006; Lushington et al. 2006).
  • Typically, carbamates do not require metabolic activation in order to bind to the enzyme, although some procarbamates (e.g., carbosulfan) have been developed that are not direct inhibitors of AChE, but take advantage of metabolic distinctions between taxa, resulting in a toxic form in invertebrates (e.g., carbofuran) but not vertebrate species (Stenersen 2004). Therefore in vitro assays measuring AChE inhibition for procarbamates in invertebrate species will not account for metabolic activation and therefore may not represent the actual enzyme activity.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

AChE is present in all life stages of both vertebrate and invertebrate species (Lu et al 2012).

  • Acetylcholinesterase associated with cholinergic responses in most insects is coded by the ace1 gene and in vertebrates by the ace gene (Lu et al 2012; Taylor 2011.

  • Plants have AChE but it is most likely involved in regulation of membrane permeability and the ability of a leaf to unroll (Tretyn and Kendrick 1991).

  • The primary amino acid sequence of the AChE enzyme is relatively well conserved across vertebrate and invertebrate species, suggesting that chemicals are likely to interact with the enzyme in a similar manner across a wide range of animals. From the sequence similarity analyses, the taxonomic domain of applicability of this MIE likely includes species belonging to many lineages, including branchiopoda (crustaceans, e.g., daphnids), insecta (insects), arachnida (arachnids, e.g., spiders, ticks, scorpions), cephalopoda (molluscans, e.g., octopods, squids), lepidosauria (reptiles, e.g., snakes, lizards), chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, e.g., sharks), amphibia (amphibians), mammalian (mammals), aves (birds), actinopterygii (bony fish), ascidiacea (sac-like marine invertebrates), trematoda (platyhelminthes, e.g., flatworms), and gastropoda (gastropods, e.g., snails and slugs) Species within these taxonomic lineages and others are predicted to be intrinsically susceptible to chemicals that target functional orthologs of the daphnid AChE (Russom, 2014).

  • Advanced computational approaches such as crystal structures of the enzyme and transcriptomics have provided empirical evidence of the enzyme structure, relevant binding sites, and function across species (Lushington et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2012; Wallace 1992).

Studies have found that AChE activity increases as the organism develops.

  • Prakesh and Kaur 1982 looked at AChE inhibition across three insect species; controls and those exposed to DDVP. They saw little difference in the larval stages but did see increased inhibition in pupal and adult stages (greatest inhibition). 

  • Karanth and Pope 2003 looked at AChE and acetylcholine synthesis in rat striatum in controls and animals exposed to 0.3 and 1 times the maximum tolerated dose. Although these doses are below the lethal concentrations and they mention that not observed cholinergic responses were observed, they do provide differences related to life stages of the rodents. 

  • Grue et al 1981 present baseline (no toxicity exposure) in wild starlings (both sexes) of brain cholinesterase and found activity increased as birds aged from 1-20 days until it reached a steady state at adulthood.

  • A study with Red Flour Beetle found that the gene associated with cholinergic functions (Ace1) was expressed at all life-stages, with increases as the organism developed from egg to larva to pupa to adult. (Lu et al., 2012 cited in Russom et al 2014.)

  • In mammals and birds, studies have determined that skeletal muscles of immature birds and mammals contain both butyrylcholinesterase and AChE, with butyrylcholinesterase decreasing and AChE increasing as the animal develops (Tsim et al. 1988; Berman et al, 1987).  

  • Another study found that changes in AChE within the developing pig brain were dependent on the area of the brain, and life stage of the animal, with significant decreases in activity within the pons and hippocampus from birth to 36 months, and no significant change in activity in the cerebellum, where activity increased up to four months of age, leveling off thereafter (Adejumo and Egbunike, 2004).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.
  • Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are prototypical AChE inhibitors. The OP and carbamate pesticides were synthesized specifically to act as inhibitors of AChE, with OPs developed from early nerve agents (e.g., sarin) and carbamate pesticides based on the natural plant alkaloid physostigmine (Ecobichon 2001).
  • A positive and significant correlation between the log of the Eserine IC50 (in vitro) for AChE inhibition and the log Km value for the AChE in the fish and crustacea species has been reported, explaining 92% of the variation in enzyme inhibition (Monserrat and Bianchini, 2001). Similar success was found in relating the rate constants for inhibition of AChE in housefly and the pseudo first-order hydrolysis rate constant for active forms of OPs (Fukuto 1990).
  • The open literature includes many studies on vertebrate and invertebrate species that demonstrate a clear dependence of AChE activity on the dose or concentration of the substance with increased concentrations leading to an increase in the inhibition of AChE (e.g., fish ( Karen et al., 2001), birds (Hudson et al., 1984 (see dimethoate and disulfoton), Grue and Shipley 1984; and Al-Zubaidy et al., 2011); cladocera (Barata et al., 2004); nematodes (Rajini et al., 2008); rodents (Roberts et al., 1988; and mollusk (Bianco et al., 2011)).
  • The open literature includes many studies on vertebrate and invertebrate species that demonstrate a clear relationship between increasing AChE inhibition as duration of exposure increases (e.g., amphibians ( Venturino et al., 2001); fish (Rao 2008; Ferrari et al., 2004); insects (Rose and Sparks 1984); birds (Ludke 1985; Grue and Shipley 1984); annelids (Reddy and Rao 2008); cladocera (Barata et al., 2004)).
  • Rao et al. 2008 exposed the estuarine fish Oreochromis mossambicus to a 24 h LC50 concentration of chlorpyrifos and reported that it took 6 hr to reach >40% AChE inhibition and 24 hr to reach 90% AChE inhibition. It took >100 days to recover to normal AChE levels when fish were placed in clean water.
  • A time course study of earthworms (Eisenis foetida) exposed to the 48 hr LC50 of profenofos found a significant relationship (between increases in percent inhibition of AChE and increase in time of exposure from 8-48 hrs (Chakra Reddy and Rao 2008).

Organophosphates

The MIE, AChE inhibition, is triggered via electrostatic interaction at the anionic site of the enzyme and binding with the serine hydroxyl group at the esteratic site of AChE (Wilson 2010; Fukuto 1990).  Organophosphate pesticides attach to the AChE via an ‘irreversible’ phosphorylation of the enzyme. Note that the use of the term ‘irreversible’ relates to the relative rate at which the phosphorylation occurs since acetylcholine and organophosphates both form covalent bonds with the enzyme. The phosphorylated form may persist for up to a week if it has undergone an ‘aging’ process; i.e., the organophosphate has undergone a dealkylation, thereby strengthening the bond between the OP and the enzyme (Mileson et al. 1998; Kropp and Richardson 2003; Sogob and Vilanova 2002).  Certain steric and electronic requirements must be met in order for an organophosphate to inhibit AChE. For instance, organophosphates require a leaving group sufficiently electronegative to ensure the formation of a reactive electrophile (Fukuto 1990; Sogob and Vilanova 2002; Schűűrmann 1992). Substances with subtle structural differences can result in major changes in AChE inhibition capabilities.  For example, OPs having identical R and R1 alkyl groups display decreasing AChE inhibition as the R / R1 carbon chain increases from a single carbon to a propyl moiety, with the latter resulting in an ineffective AChE inhibitor (Fukuto 1999).  

Metabolism also plays an important role in the potency of organophosphates.  For instance, organophosphates in the phosphorothionate and phosphorodithioate families (i.e., P=S) must undergo metabolic activation, via cytochrome P450-based monoxygenases, to an oxon form in order to inhibit AChE effectively (Fukuto 1990). 

Base Structure (OP)

Configuration

R: A simple alkyl (e.g., methyl or ethyl group) or aryl group bonded to either an oxygen or sulfur that is directly bonded to the phosphorous; 

R1:  Methoxy, ethoxy, ethyl, phenyl, amino, substituted amino, or alkylthio group;

X:  Leaving group that is or contains an electronegative moiety (e.g., phenoxy or aromatic group containing hetero atoms, substituted thioalkyl, or substituted alkoxy groups);

O: Oxons are direct acting

S: Thiophosphates require metabolic activation to the oxon form in order to be active AChE inhibitors

Evidence exists that immature life stages in mammals and birds may be more sensitive to organophosphate pesticides (see Grue et al., 1997; Grue et al., 1983; Grue et.al; 1981). It has been suggested that this may be related to the amount of pesticide ingested in relation to body size (Ludke et al, 1975), but there is direct data in rats showing that differential sensitivity to OPs is determined at least in part by inadequate detoxification in the young (Moser, 2011). OP detoxification is highly dependent on enzymes such as A-esterases (paraoxonases, PON) and carboxylesterases (e.g., Benke and Murphy, 1974; Furlong, 2007; Sterri et al., 1985; Vilanova and Sogorb, 1999), which are present at lower levels in the young (e.g., Chanda et al., 2002; Mendoza, 1976; Mortensen et al., 1996; Moser et al., 1998).

N-methyl Carbamates

Carbamates trigger AChE inhibition through electrostatic interactions at the enzyme’s anionic site and binding with the serine hydroxyl group at the esteratic site (Wilson 2010; Fukuto 1990). Carbamates, which were originally based on the plant alkaloid physostigmine, attach to the AChE via a ‘reversible’ carbamylation. Note that the use of the term ‘reversible’ relates to the relative rate at which the carbamylation occurs since acetylcholine and carbamates both form covalent bonds with the enzyme. Certain steric and electronic requirements, as well as the leaving group on the pesticide, are critical to the likelihood that the methyl-carbamate will inhibit AChE (See Figure).  

Metabolism also plays a role in the potency of some carbamates.  Select procarbamates require metabolism to form an active AChE inhibitor (e.g., carbosulfan must be metabolized to carbofuran), or are made more potent via metabolism (e.g., aldicarb oxidation to the more toxic sulfoxide form) (Sogob and Vilanova 2002; Stenersen 2004). 

 

Base Structure (Carbamate)

Configuration

R1: Methyl group

R2:  Hydrogen group;

XR3:  Leaving group that is an aryloxy or oxime;

pKa:  For oxime and substituted phenols, a pKa in the range of 10 ensures carbamylation;

Carbamates must ‘fit’ in the enzyme active site to be effective inhibitors

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help
  • Augustinsson KB. 1957. Assay methods for cholinesterases. Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Vol 5, Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, USA, pp 1-63.

  • Ecobichon, D.J. 2001. Toxic effects of pesticides. In: C.D. Klaassen (Ed.), Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons; Sixth Edition. (pp. 763-810). McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

  • Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V Jr, Featherstone RM. 1961. A new and rapid colormetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 7:88-95.

  • Fukuto, TR. 1990. Mechanism of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Environ Health Perspect. 87:245-254.

  • Guo, J.-X., J.J.-Q. Wu, J.B. Wright, and G.H. Lushington. 2006. Mechanistic insight into acetylcholinesterase inhibition and acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds: A molecular modeling study. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19: 209-216.

  • Johnson CD, Russell RL. 1975. A rapid, simple radiometric assay for cholinesterase suitable for multiple determinations. Anal Biochem 64:229-238.

  • Kropp, T.J., and Richardson, R.J. 2003. Relative inhibitory potencies of chlorpyrifos oxon, chlorpyrifos methyl oxon, and mipafox for acetylcholinesterase versus neuropathy target esterase. J. Toxicol. Environ.l Health, Part A, 66:1145–1157.

  • Lu Y, Park Y, Gao X, Zhang X, Yoo J, Pang X-P, Jiang H, Zhu KY. 2012. Cholinergic and non-cholinergic functions of two acetylcholinesterase genes revealed by gene-silencing in Tribolium castaneum. Sci Rep 2:1-7.

  • Ludke JL, Hill EF, Dieter MP. 1975. Cholinesterase (ChE) response and related mortality among birds fed ChE inhibitors. Arch Environ ContamToxicol 3:1–21.

  • Lushington, G.H., J-X. Guo, and M.M. Hurley. 2006. Acetylcholinesterase: Molecular modeling with the whole toolkit. Curr. Topics Medic. Chem. 6: 57-73.

  • Mileson, BE, Chambers JE, Chen WL, Dettbarn W, Ehrich M, Eldefrawi AT, Gaylor DW, Hamernik K, Hodgson E, Karczmar AG, Padilla S, Pope CN, Richardson RJ, Saunders DR, Sheets LP, Sultatos LG, Wallace KB.  1998. Common mechanism of toxicity: A case study of organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Sci 41:8-20.

  • Moser, Virginia C. 2011. “Age-Related Differences in Acute Neurotoxicity Produced by Mevinphos, Monocrotophos, Dicrotophos, and Phosphamidon.” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 33 (4): 451–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2011.05.012.

  • Monserrat, J.M. and A. Bianchini. 2001. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine) in fish and crustacean species. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 44(1): 63-68.

  • Russom, Christine L., Carlie A. LaLone, Daniel L. Villeneuve, and Gerald T. Ankley. 2014. “Development of an Adverse Outcome Pathway for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Leading to Acute Mortality.” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33 (10): 2157–69. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.2662.

  • Schűűrmann G. 1992. Ecotoxicology and structure-activity studies of organophosphorus compounds. Rational Approaches to Structure, Activity, and Ecotoxicology of Agrochemicals, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA pp 485-541

  • Sogob MA, Vilanova E. 2002. Enzymes involved in the detoxification of organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides through hydrolysis. Toxicol Lett 128:215-228.

  • Soreq H, Seidman S. 2001. Acetylcholinesterase -- New roles for an old actor. Nature Reviews Neurosci 2:294-302.

  • Stenersen, J. 2004. Specific enzyme inhibitors. In: Chemical Pesticides: Mode of action and toxicology. (41 p). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

  • Taylor P. 2011. Anticholinesterase agents. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th ed, McGraw Hill, New York, NY, USA, pp 255-276.

  • Tretyn A, Kendrick RE. 1991. Acetylcholine in plants: Metabolism and mechanism of action. Bot Rev 57:33-73.

  • Wilson BW, Padilla S, Henderson JD, Brimijoin S, Dass PD, Elliot G, Jaeger B, Lanz D, Pearson R, Spies R. 1996. Factors in standardizing automated cholinesterase assays. J Toxicol Environ Health 48:187-195.

  • Wilson, B.W. and J.D. Henderson. 2007. Determination of cholinesterase in blood and tissue. Current Protocols in Toxicology 12.13.1-12.13.16.

  • Wilson BW. 2010. Cholinesterases. Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 3rd ed, Vol 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 1457-1478.