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Event: 1262

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Apoptosis

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Apoptosis
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Cellular

Cell term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Cell term
cell

Organ term

The location/biological environment in which the event takes place.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Organ term
organ

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
apoptotic process increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
AOP on basal cytotoxicity AdverseOutcome Cataia Ives (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
NADPH oxidase activation leading to reproductive failure KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Histone deacetylase inhibition leading to testicular atrophy KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation leads to liver injury KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AHR activation decreasing lung function via P53 tox path KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AhR activation to breast cancer related death KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
PM-induced respiratory toxicity KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
Mus musculus Mus musculus High NCBI
Rattus norvegicus Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
Caenorhabditis elegans Caenorhabditis elegans High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
Not Otherwise Specified High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

Apoptosis, the process of programmed cell death, is characterized by distinct morphology with DNA fragmentation and energy dependency [Elmore, 2007]. Apoptosis, also called “physiological cell death”, is involved in cell turnover, physiological involution, and atrophy of various tissues and organs [Kerr et al., 1972]. The formation of apoptotic bodies involves marked condensation of both nucleus and cytoplasm, nuclear fragmentation, and separation of protuberances [Kerr et al., 1972]. Apoptosis is characterized by DNA ladder and chromatin condensation. Several stimuli such as hypoxia, nucleotides deprivation, chemotherapeutical drugs, DNA damage, and mitotic spindle damage induce p53 activation, leading to p21 activation and cell cycle arrest [Pucci et al., 2000]. The SAHA or TSA treatment on neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) for 24 or 72 hrs inhibited proliferation of the NHDF cells [Glaser et al., 2003]. Considering that the acetylation of histone H4 was increased by the treatment of SAHA for 4 hrs, histone deacetylase inhibition may be involved in the inhibition of the cell proliferation [Glaser et al., 2003]. The impaired proliferation was observed in HDAC1-/- ES cells, which was rescued with the reintroduction of HDAC1 [Zupkovitz et al., 2010]. The present AOP focuses on the p21 pathway leading to apoptosis, however, alternative pathways such as NF-kappaB signaling pathways may be involved in the apoptosis of spermatocytes [Wang et al., 2017].

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

Apoptosis is characterized by many morphological and biochemical changes such as homogenous condensation of chromatin to one side or the periphery of the nuclei, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies with fragmented nuclei, DNA fragmentation, enzymatic activation of pro-caspases, or phosphatidylserine translocation that can be measured using electron and cytochemical optical microscopy, proteomic and genomic methods, and spectroscopic techniques [Archana et al., 2013; Martinez et al., 2010; Taatjes et al., 2008; Yasuhara et al., 2003].

DNA fragmentation can be quantified with comet assay using electrophoresis, where the tail length, head size, tail intensity, and head intensity of the comet are measured [Yasuhara et al., 2003].

・The apoptosis is detected with the expression alteration of procaspases 7 and 3 by Western blotting using antibodies [Parajuli et al., 2014].

・The apoptosis is measured with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic gene baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein repeat containing 2 (BIRC2, or cIAP1) [Parajuli et al., 2014].

・Apoptotic nucleosomes are detected using Cell Death Detection ELISA kit, which was calculated as absorbance subtraction at 405 nm and 490 nm [Parajuli et al., 2014].

・Cleavage of PARP is detected with Western blotting [Parajuli et al., 2014].

・Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity is measured with the enzyme-catalyzed release of p-nitroanilide (pNA) and quantified at 405 nm [Wu et al., 2016].

・Apoptosis is measured with Annexin V-FITC probes, and the relative percentage of Annexin V-FITC-positive/PI-negative cells is analyzed by flow cytometry [Wu et al., 2016].

・Apoptosis is detected with the Terminal dUTP Nick End-Labeling (TUNEL) method to assay the endonuclease cleavage products by enzymatically end-labeling the DNA strand breaks [Kressel and Groscurth, 1994].

・For the detection of apoptosis, the testes are fixed in neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Germ cell death is visualized in testis sections by Terminal dUTP Nick End-Labeling (TUNEL) staining method [Wade et al., 2008]. The incidence of TUNEL-positive cells is expressed as the number of positive cells per tubule examined for one entire testis section per animal [Wade et al., 2008].

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

・Apoptosis is induced in human prostate cancer cell lines (Homo sapiens) [Parajuli et al., 2014].

・Apoptosis occurs in B6C3F1 mouse (Mus musculus) [Elmore, 2007].

・Apoptosis occurs in Sprague-Dawley rat (Rattus norvegicus) [Elmore, 2007].

・Apoptosis occurs in the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) [Elmore, 2007].

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. More help

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Archana, M. et al. (2013), "Various methods available for detection of apoptotic cells", Indian J Cancer 50:274-283

Elmore, S. (2007), "Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death", Toxicol Pathol 35:495-516

Glaser, K.B. et al. (2003), "Gene expression profiling of multiple histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors: defining a common gene set produced by HDAC inhibition in T24 and MDA carcinoma cell lines", Mol Cancer Ther 2:151-163

Kerr, J.F.R. et al. (1972), "Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics", Br J Cancer 26:239-257

Kressel, M. and Groscurth, P. (1994), "Distinction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death by in situ labelling of fragmented DNA", Cell Tissue Res 278:549-556

Martinez, M.M. et al. (2010), "Detection of apoptosis: A review of conventioinal and novel techniques", Anal Methods 2:996-1004

Parajuli, K.R. et al. (2014), "Methoxyacetic acid suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis", Am J Clin Exp Urol 2:300-313

Pucci, B. et al. (2000), "Cell cycle and apoptosis", Neoplasia 2:291-299

Taatjes, D.J. et al. (2008), "Morphological and cytochemical determination of cell death by apoptosis", Histochem Cell Biol 129:33-43

Wade, M.G. et al. (2008), "Methoxyacetic acid-induced spermatocyte death is associated with histone hyperacetylation in rats", Biol Reprod 78:822-831

Wang, C. et al. (2017), "CD147 regulates extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes by modulating NFkB signaling pathways", Oncotarget 8:3132-3143

Wu, R. et al. (2016), "microRNA-497 induces apoptosis and suppressed proliferation via the Bcl-2/Bax-caspase9-caspase 3 pathway and cyclin D2 protein in HUVECs", PLoS One 11:e0167052

Yasuhara, S. et al. (2003), "Comparison of comet assay, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry for detection of apoptosis", J Histochem Cytochem 51:873-885

Zupkovitz, G. et al. (2010), "The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is a crucial target for histone deacetylase 1 as a regulator of cellular proliferation", Mol Cell Biol 30:1171-1181