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Event: 1688

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

decrease, male anogenital distance

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
short male AGD

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Organ term

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
androgen receptor signaling pathway Musculature of male perineum disrupted

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
5α-reductase inhibition leading to short AGD AdverseOutcome Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
AR antagonism leading to short AGD AdverseOutcome Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Decreased testosterone synthesis leading to short AGD AdverseOutcome Cataia Ives (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens Moderate NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
Foetal High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Male High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

The anogenital distance (AGD) refers to the distance between anus and the external genitalia. In rodents and humans, the male AGD is approximately twice the length as the female AGD (Salazar-Martinez et al, 2004; Schwartz et al, 2019). This sexual dimorphisms is a consequence of sex hormone-dependent development of secondary sexual characteristics (Schwartz et al, 2019). In males, it is believed that androgens (primarily DHT) activate AR-positive cells in non-myotic cells in the fetal perineum region to initiate differentiation of the perineal levator ani and bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex (Ipulan et al, 2014). This AR-dependent process occurs within a critical window of development, around gestational days 15-18 in rats (MacLeod et al, 2010). In females, the absence of DHT prevents this masculinization effect from occurring.

The involvement of androgens in masculinization of the male fetus, including the perineum, has been known for a very long time (Jost, 1953), and AGD has historically been used to, for instance, sex newborn kittens. It is now well established that the AGD in newborns is a proxy readout for the intrauterine sex hormone milieu the fetus was developing. Too low androgen levels in XY fetuses makes the male AGD shorter, whereas excess (ectopic) androgen levels in XX fetuses makes the female AGD longer, in humans and rodents (Schwartz et al, 2019).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

The AGD is a morphometric measurement carried out by trained technicians (rodents) or medical staff (humans).

In rodent studies AGD is assessed as the distance between the genital papilla and the anus, and measured using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece. The AGD index (AGDi) is often calculated by dividing AGD by the cube root of the body weight.  It is important in statistical analysis to use litter as the statistical unit. This is done when more than one pup from each litter is examined. Statistical analyses is adjusted using litter as an independent, random and nested factor. AGD are analysed using body weight as covariate as recommended in Guidance Document 151 (OECD, 2013).

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

A short AGD in male offspring is a marker of insufficient androgen action during critical fetal developmental stages (Schwartz et al, 2019; Welsh et al, 2008). A short AGD is thus a sign of undervirilization, which is also associated with a series of male reproductive disorders, including genital malformations and infertility in humans (Juul et al, 2014; Skakkebaek et al, 2001).

There are numerous human epidemiological studies showing associations with intrauterine exposure to anti-androgenic chemicals and short AGD in newborn boys alongside other reproductive disorders (Schwartz et al, 2019). This underscores the human relevance of this AO. However, in reproductive toxicity studies and chemical risk assessment, rodents (rats and mice) are what is tested on. The list of chemicals inducing short male AGD in male rat offspring is extensive, as evidenced by the ‘stressor’ list and reviewed by (Schwartz et al, 2019).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor


Butylparaben has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Boberg et al, 2016; Zhang et al, 2014). A separate study using 600 mg/kg bw/day did not see an effect on male AGD (Boberg et al, 2008).


p,p,DDE has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 100-200 mg/kg bw/day (Loeffler & Peterson, 1999; Wolf et al, 1999).

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

DEHP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 300-1500 mg/kg bw/day (Christiansen et al, 2010; Gray et al, 2000; Howdeshell et al, 2007; Jarfelt et al, 2005; Kita et al, 2016; Li et al, 2013; Lin et al, 2009; Moore et al, 2001; Nardelli et al, 2017; Saillenfait et al, 2009; Wolf et al, 1999).


Dexamethasone has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 0.1 mg/kg bw/day (Van den Driesche et al, 2012).


Fenitrothion has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 25 mg/kg bw/day (Turner et al, 2002).


Finasteride has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 100 mg/kg bw/day (Bowman et al, 2003).


Flutamide has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to doses between 16-100 mg/kg bw/day (Foster & Harris, 2005; Hass et al, 2007; Kita et al, 2016; McIntyre et al, 2001; Mylchreest et al, 1999; Scott et al, 2007; Welsh et al, 2007).


Ketoconazole has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 50 mg/kg bw/day in one study (Taxvig et al, 2008), but no effect in another study using same dose (Wolf et al, 1999).


Linuron has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 50-100 mg/kg bw/day (Hotchkiss et al, 2004; McIntyre et al, 2002; Wolf et al, 1999).


Prochloraz has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 150-250 mg/kg bw/day (Laier et al, 2006; Noriega et al, 2005).


Procymidone has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to doses between 50-150 mg/kg bw/day (Hass et al, 2012; Hass et al, 2007; Wolf et al, 1999).


Triticonazole has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day (Draskau et al, 2019).


Vinclozolin has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to doses between 50-200 mg/kg bw/day (Christiansen et al, 2009; Gray et al, 1994; Hass et al, 2007; Matsuura et al, 2005; Ostby et al, 1999; Schneider et al, 2011; Wolf et al, 2004).

di-n-hexyl phthalate

DnHP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 500-750 mg/kg bw/day (Saillenfait et al, 2009a; Saillenfait et al, 2009b).

Dicyclohexyl phthalate

DCHP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 350-750 mg/kg bw/day (Aydoğan Ahbab & Barlas, 2015; Hoshino et al, 2005; Saillenfait et al, 2009a).

butyl benzyl phthalate

BBP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 500-1000 mg/kg bw/day (Ema & Miyawaki, 2002; Gray et al, 2000; Hotchkiss et al, 2004; Nagao et al, 2000; Tyl et al, 2004).

monobenzyl phthalate

MBeP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 375 mg/kg bw/day (Ema et al, 2003).

di-n-heptyl phthalate

DHPP has been shown to cause decreased male AGD in rats following intrauterine exposure to 1000 mg/kg bw/day (Saillenfait et al, 2011).

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. For KEs that are designated as an AO, one additional field of information (regulatory significance of the AO) should be completed, to the extent feasible. If the KE is being described is not an AO, simply indicate “not an AO” in this section.A key criterion for defining an AO is its relevance for regulatory decision-making (i.e., it corresponds to an accepted protection goal or common apical endpoint in an established regulatory guideline study). For example, in humans this may constitute increased risk of disease-related pathology in a particular organ or organ system in an individual or in either the entire or a specified subset of the population. In wildlife, this will most often be an outcome of demographic significance that has meaning in terms of estimates of population sustainability. Given this consideration, in addition to describing the biological state associated with the AO, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to describe regulatory examples using this AO. More help

In regulatory toxicology, the AGD is mandatory inclusions in OECD test guidelines used to test for developmental and reproductive toxicity of chemicals. Guidelines include ‘TG 443 extended one-generation study’, ‘TG 421/422 reproductive toxicity screening studies’ and ‘TG 414 developmental toxicity study’.


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

Aydoğan Ahbab M, Barlas N (2015) Influence of in utero di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate on fetal testicular development in rats. Toxicol Lett 233: 125-137

Boberg J, Axelstad M, Svingen T, Mandrup K, Christiansen S, Vinggaard AM, Hass U (2016) Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben. Toxicol Sci 152: 244-256

Boberg J, Metzdorff S, Wortziger R, Axelstad M, Brokken L, Vinggaard AM, Dalgaard M, Nellemann C (2008) Impact of diisobutyl phthalate and other PPAR agonists on steroidogenesis and plasma insulin and leptin levels in fetal rats. Toxicology 250: 75-81

Bowman CJ, Barlow NJ, Turner KJ, Wallace DG, Foster PM (2003) Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat. Toxicol Sci 74: 393-406

Christiansen S, Boberg J, Axelstad M, Dalgaard M, Vinggaard AM, Metzdorff SB, Hass U (2010) Low-dose perinatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces anti-androgenic effects in male rats. Reprod Toxicol 30: 313-321

Christiansen S, Scholze M, Dalgaard M, Vinggaard AM, Axelstad M, Kortenkamp A, Hass U (2009) Synergistic disruption of external male sex organ development by a mixture of four antiandrogens. Environ Health Perspect 117: 1839-1846

Draskau MK, Boberg J, Taxvig C, Pedersen M, Frandsen HL, Christiansen S, Svingen T (2019) In vitro and in vivo endocrine disrupting effects of the azole fungicides triticonazole and flusilazole. Environ Pollut 255: 113309

Ema M, Miyawaki E (2002) Effects on development of the reproductive system in male offspring of rats given butyl benzyl phthalate during late pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol 16: 71-76

Ema M, Miyawaki E, Hirose A, Kamata E (2003) Decreased anogenital distance and increased incidence of undescended testes in fetuses of rats given monobenzyl phthalate, a major metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate. Reprod Toxicol 17: 407-412

Foster PM, Harris MW (2005) Changes in androgen-mediated reproductive development in male rat offspring following exposure to a single oral dose of flutamide at different gestational ages. Toxicol Sci 85: 1024-1032

Gray LE, Jr., Ostby J, Furr J, Price M, Veeramachaneni DN, Parks L (2000) Perinatal exposure to the phthalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, alters sexual differentiation of the male rat. Toxicol Sci 58: 350-365

Gray LEJ, Ostby JS, Kelce WR (1994) Developmental effects of an environmental antiandrogen: the fungicide vinclozolin alters sex differentiation of the male rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 129: 46-52

Hass U, Boberg J, Christiansen S, Jacobsen PR, Vinggaard AM, Taxvig C, Poulsen ME, Herrmann SS, Jensen BH, Petersen A, Clemmensen LH, Axelstad M (2012) Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides. Reprod Toxicol 34: 261-274

Hass U, Scholze M, Christiansen S, Dalgaard M, Vinggaard AM, Axelstad M, Metzdorff SB, Kortenkamp A (2007) Combined exposure to anti-androgens exacerbates disruption of sexual differentiation in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 115 Suppl. 1: 122-128

Hoshino N, Iwai M, Okazaki Y (2005) A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of dicyclohexyl phthalate in rats. J Toxicol Sci 30 Spec No: 79-96

Hotchkiss AK, Parks-Saldutti LG, Ostby JS, Lambright C, Furr J, Vandenbergh JG, Gray LEJ (2004) A mixture of the "antiandrogens" linuron and butyl benzyl phthalate alters sexual differentiation of the male rat in a cumulative fashion. Biol Reprod 71: 1852-1861

Howdeshell KL, Furr J, Lambright CR, Rider CV, Wilson VS, Gray LE, Jr. (2007) Cumulative effects of dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate on male rat reproductive tract development: altered fetal steroid hormones and genes. Toxicol Sci 99: 190-202

Ipulan LA, Suzuki K, Sakamoto Y, Murashima A, Imai Y, Omori A, Nakagata N, Nishinakamura R, Valasek P, Yamada G (2014) Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle. Endocrinology 155: 2467-2479

Jarfelt K, Dalgaard M, Hass U, Borch J, Jacobsen H, Ladefoged O (2005) Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. Reprod Toxicol 19: 505-515

Jost A (1953) Problems of fetal endocrinology: The gonadal and hypophyseal hormones. Recent Prog Horm Res 8: 379-418

Juul A, Almstrup K, Andersson AM, Jensen TK, Jorgensen N, Main KM, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE (2014) Possible fetal determinants of male infertility. Nat Rev Endocrinol 10: 553-562

Kita DH, Meyer KB, Venturelli AC, Adams R, Machado DL, Morais RN, Swan SH, Gennings C, Martino-Andrade AJ (2016) Manipulation of pre and postnatal androgen environments and anogenital distance in rats. Toxicology 368-369: 152-161

Laier P, Metzdorff SB, Borch J, Hagen ML, Hass U, Christiansen S, Axelstad M, Kledal T, Dalgaard M, McKinnell C, Brokken LJ, Vinggaard AM (2006) Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 213: 2

Li M, Qiu L, Zhang Y, Hua Y, Tu S, He Y, Wen S, Wang Q, Wei G (2013) Dose-related effect by maternal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticizer on inducing hypospadiac male rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 35: 55-60

Lin H, Lian QQ, Hu GX, Jin Y, Zhang Y, Hardy DO, Chen GR, Lu ZQ, Sottas CM, Hardy MP, Ge RS (2009) In utero and lactational exposures to diethylhexyl-phthalate affect two populations of Leydig cells in male Long-Evans rats. Biol Reprod 80: 882-888

Loeffler IK, Peterson RE (1999) Interactive effects of TCDD and p,p'-DDE on male reproductive tract development in in utero and lactationally exposed rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 154: 28-39

MacLeod DJ, Sharpe RM, Welsh M, Fisken M, Scott HM, Hutchison GR, Drake AJ, van den Driesche S (2010) Androgen action in the masculinization programming window and development of male reproductive organs. Int J Androl 33: 279-287

Matsuura I, Saitoh T, Ashina M, Wako Y, Iwata H, Toyota N, Ishizuka Y, Namiki M, Hoshino N, Tsuchitani M (2005) Evaluation of a two-generation reproduction toxicity study adding endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity using vinclozolin. J Toxicol Sci 30 Spec No: 163-168

McIntyre BS, Barlow NJ, Foster PM (2001) Androgen-mediated development in male rat offspring exposed to flutamide in utero: permanence and correlation of early postnatal changes in anogenital distance and nipple retention with malformations in androgen-dependent tissues. Toxicol Sci 62: 236-249

McIntyre BS, Barlow NJ, Sar M, Wallace DG, Foster PM (2002) Effects of in utero linuron exposure on rat Wolffian duct development. Reprod Toxicol 16: 131-139

Melching-Kollmuss S, Fussell KC, Schneider S, Buesen R, Groeters S, Strauss V, van Ravenzwaay B (2017) Comparing effect levels of regulatory studies with endpoints derived in targeted anti-androgenic studies: example prochloraz. Arch Toxicol 91: 143-162

Moore RW, Rudy TA, Lin TM, Ko K, Peterson RE (2001) Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Environ Health Perspect 109: 229-237

Mylchreest E, Sar M, Cattley RC, Foster PM (1999) Disruption of androgen-regulated male reproductive development by di(n-butyl) phthalate during late gestation in rats is different from flutamide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 156: 81-95

Nagao T, Ohta R, Marumo H, Shindo T, Yoshimura S, Ono H (2000) Effect of butyl benzyl phthalate in Sprague-Dawley rats after gavage administration: a two-generation reproductive study. Reprod Toxicol 14: 513-532

Nardelli TC, Albert O, Lalancette C, Culty M, Hales BF, Robaire B (2017) In utero and lactational exposure study in rats to identify replacements for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Sci Rep 7: 3862

Noriega NC, Ostby J, Lambright C, Wilson VS, Gray LE, Jr. (2005) Late gestational exposure to the fungicide prochloraz delays the onset of parturition and causes reproductive malformations in male but not female rat offspring. Biol Reprod 72: 1324-1335

OECD. (2013) Guidance document in support of the test guideline on the extended one generation reproductive toxicity study No. 151.

Ostby J, Kelce WR, Lambright C, Wolf CJ, Mann P, Gray CLJ (1999) The fungicide procymidone alters sexual differentiation in the male rat by acting as an androgen-receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol Ind Health 15: 80-93

Saillenfait AM, Gallissot F, Sabaté JP (2009a) Differential developmental toxicities of di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate administered orally to rats. J Appl Toxicol 29: 510-521

Saillenfait AM, Roudot AC, Gallissot F, Sabaté JP (2011) Prenatal developmental toxicity studies on di-n-heptyl and di-n-octyl phthalates in Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol 32: 268-276

Saillenfait AM, Sabaté JP, Gallissot F (2009b) Effects of in utero exposure to di-n-hexyl phthalate on the reproductive development of the male rat. Reprod Toxicol 28: 468-476

Salazar-Martinez E, Romano-Riquer P, Yanez-Marquez E, Longnecker MP, Hernandez-Avila M (2004) Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Environ Health 3: 8

Schneider S, Kaufmann W, Strauss V, van Ravenzwaay B (2011) Vinclozolin: a feasibility and sensitivity study of the ILSI-HESI F1-extended one-generation rat reproduction protocol. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 59: 91-100

Schwartz CL, Christiansen S, Vinggaard AM, Axelstad M, Hass U, Svingen T (2019) Anogenital distance as a toxicological or clinical marker for fetal androgen action and risk for reproductive disorders. Arch Toxicol 93: 253-272

Scott HM, Hutchison GR, Mahood IK, Hallmark N, Welsh M, De Gendt K, Verhoeven H, O'Shaughnessy P, Sharpe RM (2007) Role of androgens in fetal testis development and dysgenesis. Endocrinology 148: 2027-2036

Skakkebaek NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Main KM (2001) Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: an increasingly common developmental disorder with environmental aspects. Hum Reprod 16: 972-978

Taxvig C, Vinggaard AM, Hass U, Axelstad M, Metzdorff S, Nellemann C (2008) Endocrine-disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides. Int J Androl 31: 170-177

Turner KJ, Barlow NJ, Struve MF, Wallace DG, Gaido KW, Dorman DC, Foster PM (2002) Effects of in utero exposure to the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the Crl:CD(SD)BR rat. Toxicol Sci 68: 174-183

Tyl RW, Myers CB, Marr MC, Fail PA, Seely JC, Brine DR, Barter RA, Butala JH (2004) Reproductive toxicity evaluation of dietary butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) in rats. Reprod Toxicol 18: 241-264

Van den Driesche S, Kolovos P, Platts S, Drake AJ, Sharpe RM (2012) Inter-relationship between testicular dysgenesis and Leydig cell function in the masculinization programming window in the rat. PloS one 7: e30111

Welsh M, Saunders PT, Fisken M, Scott HM, Hutchison GR, Smith LB, Sharpe RM (2008) Identification in rats of a programming window for reproductive tract masculinization, disruption of which leads to hypospadias and cryptorchidism. J Clin Invest 118: 1479-1490

Welsh M, Saunders PT, Sharpe RM (2007) The critical time window for androgen-dependent development of the Wolffian duct in the rat. Endocrinology 148: 3185-3195

Wolf CJ, LeBlanc GA, Gray LE, Jr. (2004) Interactive effects of vinclozolin and testosterone propionate on pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the male and female SD rat. Toxicol Sci 78: 135-143

Wolf CJJ, Lambright C, Mann P, Price M, Cooper RL, Ostby J, Gray CLJ (1999) Administration of potentially antiandrogenic pesticides (procymidone, linuron, iprodione, chlozolinate, p,p'-DDE, and ketoconazole) and toxic substances (dibutyl- and diethylhexyl phthalate, PCB 169, and ethane dimethane sulphonate) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health 15: 94-118

Zhang L, Dong L, Ding S, Qiao P, Wang C, Zhang M, Zhang L, Du Q, Li Y, Tang N, Chang B (2014) Effects of n-butylparaben on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis through changed E₂ levels in male rat offspring. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 37: 705-717