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Event: 177

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
N/A, Mitochondrial dysfunction 1

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help
Level of Biological Organization

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help
Cell term
eukaryotic cell

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help
Process Object Action
mitochondrion functional change

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and cognition KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed
nAChR activation - colony death 1 KeyEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
nAChR activation - colony death/failure2 KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
nAChR activation - colony loss 3 KeyEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
nAChR activation - colony loss 4 KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
nAChR activation - colony loss 5 KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
Mitochondrial dysfunction and Neurotoxicity KeyEvent Cataia Ives (send email) Open for citation & comment TFHA/WNT Endorsed
lysosomal uptake induced liver fibrosis KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite EAGMST Under Review
nAChR to colony loss/failure KeyEvent Allie Always (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
ER activation to breast cancer KeyEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Open for adoption
Mitochondrial complex inhibition leading to liver injury KeyEvent Arthur Author (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Thermal stress leading to population decline (3) MolecularInitiatingEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Thermal stress leading to population decline (2) MolecularInitiatingEvent Allie Always (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Thermal stress leading to population decline (1) MolecularInitiatingEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite


This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a consequence of inhibition of the respiratory chain leading to oxidative stress.

Mitochondria can be found in all cells and are considered the most important cellular consumers of oxygen. Furthermore, mitochondria possess numerous redox enzymes capable of transferring single electrons to oxygen, generating the superoxide (O2-). Some mitochondrial enzymes that are involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation include the electron-transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II and III; pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). The transfer of electrons to oxygen, generating superoxide, happens mainly when these redox carriers are charged enough with electrons and the potential energy for transfer is elevated, like in the case of high mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, ROS generation is decreased if there are not enough electrons and the potential energy for the transfer is not sufficient (reviewed in Lin and Beal, 2006).

Cells are also able to detoxify the generated ROS due to an extensive antioxidant defence system that includes superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases, catalase, thioredoxins, and peroxiredoxins in various cell organelles (reviewed in Lin and Beal, 2006). It is worth mentioning that, as in the case of ROS generation, antioxidant defences are also closely related to the redox and energetic status of mitochondria. If mitochondria are structurally and functionally healthy, an antioxidant defence mechanism balances ROS generation, and there is not much available ROS production. However, in case of mitochondrial damage, the antioxidant defence capacity drops and ROS generation takes over. Once this happens, a vicious cycle starts and ROS can further damage mitochondria, leading to more free-radical generation and further loss of antioxidant capacity. During mitochondrial dysfunction the availability of ATP also decreases, which is considered necessary for repair mechanisms after ROS generation.

A number of proteins bound to the mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum (ER), especially in the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), are playing an important role of communicators between these two organelles (reviewed Mei et al., 2013). ER stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction through regulation of Ca2+ signaling and ROS production (reviewed Mei et al., 2013). Prolonged ER stress leads to release of Ca2+ at the MAM and increased Ca2+ uptake into the mitochondrial matrix, which induces Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. At the same, ROS are produced by proteins in the ER oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1) family. ER stress activates ERO1 and leads to excessive production of ROS, which, in turn, inactivates SERCA and activates inositol-1,4,5- trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) via oxidation, resulting in elevated levels of cytosolic Ca2+, increased mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+, and ultimately mitochondrial dysfunction. Just as ER stress can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial dysfunction also induces ER Stress (reviewed Mei et al., 2013). For example, nitric oxide disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca2+ flux which induce ER stress. Increased Ca2+ flux triggers loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), decreasing ATP synthesis and rendering the cells more vulnerable to both apoptosis and necrosis (Wang and Qin, 2010).

Summing up: Mitochondria play a pivotal role in cell survival and cell death because they are regulators of both energy metabolism and apoptotic/necrotic pathways (Fiskum, 2000; Wieloch, 2001; Friberg and Wieloch, 2002). The production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation is a vital mitochondrial function (Kann and Kovács, 2007; Nunnari and Suomalainen, 2012). The ATP is continuously required for signalling processes (e.g. Ca2+ signalling), maintenance of ionic gradients across membranes, and biosynthetic processes (e.g. protein synthesis, heme synthesis or lipid and phospholipid metabolism) (Kang and Pervaiz, 2012), and (Green, 1998; McBride et al., 2006). Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration contributes to various cellular stress responses, such as deregulation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis (Graier et al., 2007) and ROS production (Nunnari and Suomalainen, 2012; reviewed Mei et al., 2013).). It is well established in the existing literature that mitochondrial dysfunction may result in: (a) an increased ROS production and a decreased ATP level, (b) the loss of mitochondrial protein import and protein biosynthesis, (c) the reduced activities of enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle, (d) the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, (e) the loss of mitochondrial motility, causing a failure to re-localize to the sites with increased energy demands (f) the destruction of the mitochondrial network, and (g) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, causing Ca2+ overload (reviewed in Lin and Beal, 2006; Graier et al., 2007), (h) the rupture of the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes, leading to (i) the release of mitochondrial pro-death factors, including cytochrome c (Cyt. c), apoptosis-inducing factor, or endonuclease G (Braun, 2012; Martin, 2011; Correia et al., 2012; Cozzolino et al., 2013), which eventually leads to apoptotic, necrotic or autophagic cell death (Wang and Qin, 2010). Due to their structural and functional complexity, mitochondria present multiple targets for various compounds.

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

Mitochondrial dysfunction can be detected using isolated mitochondria, intact cells or cells in culture as well as in vivo studies. Such assessment can be performed with a large range of methods (revised by Brand and Nicholls, 2011) for which some important examples are given. All approaches to assess mitochondrial dysfunction fall into two main categories: the first assesses the consequences of a loss-of-function, i.e. impaired functioning of the respiratory chain and processes linked to it. Some assay to assess this have been described for KE1, with the limitation that they are not specific for complex I. In the context of overall mitochondrial dysfunction, the same assays provide useful information, when performed under slightly different assay conditions (e.g. without addition of complex III and IV inhibitors). The second approach assesses a ‘non-desirable gain-of-function’, i.e. processes that are usually only present to a very small degree in healthy cells, and that are triggered in a cell, in which mitochondria fail.

I. Mitochondrial dysfunction assays assessing a loss-of function.

1. Cellular oxygen consumption.

See KE1 for details of oxygen consumption assays. The oxygen consumption parameter can be combined with other endpoints to derive more specific information on the efficacy of mitochondrial function. One approach measures the ADP-to-O ratio (the number of ADP molecules phosphorylated per oxygen atom reduced (Hinkle, 1995 and Hafner et al., 1990). The related P/O ratio is calculated from the amount of ADP added, divided by the amount of O2 consumed while phosphorylating the added ADP (Ciapaite et al., 2005; Diepart et al., 2010; Hynes et al., 2006; James et al., 1995; von Heimburg et al., 2005).

2. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm ).

The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is the electric potential difference across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It requires a functioning respiratory chain in the absence of mechanisms that dissipate the proton gradient without coupling it to ATP production. The classical, and still most quantitative method uses a tetraphenylphosphonium ion (TPP+)-sensitive electrode on suspensions of isolated mitochondria. The Δψm can also be measured in live cells by fluorimetric methods. These are based on dyes which accumulate in mitochochondria because of Δψm. Frequently used are tetramethylrhodamineethylester (TMRE), tetramethylrhodaminemethyl ester (TMRM) (Petronilli et al., 1999) or 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazole carbocyanide iodide (JC-1). Mitochondria with intact membrane potential concentrate JC-1, so that it forms red fluorescent aggregates, whereas de-energized mitochondria cannot concentrate JC-1 and the dilute dye fluoresces green (Barrientos et al., 1999). Assays using TMRE or TMRM measure only at one wavelength (red fluorescence), and depending on the assay setup, de-energized mitochondria become either less fluorescent (loss of the dye) or more fluorescent (attenuated dye quenching).

3. Enzymatic activity of the electron transport system (ETS).

Determination of ETS activity can be dene following Owens and King's assay (1975). The technique is based on a cell-free homogenate that is incubated with NADH to saturate the mitochondrial ETS and an artificial electron acceptor [l - (4 -iodophenyl) -3 - (4 -nitrophenyl) -5-phenylte trazolium chloride (INT)] to register the electron transmission rate. The oxygen consumption rate is calculated from the molar production rate of INT-formazan which is determined spectrophotometrically (Cammen et al., 1990).

4. ATP content.

For the evaluation of ATP levels, various commercially-available ATP assay kits are offered  based on luciferin and luciferase activity. For isolated mitochondria various methods are available to continuously measure ATP with electrodes (Laudet 2005), with luminometric methods, or for obtaining more information on different nucleotide phosphate pools (e.g. Ciapaite et al., (2005).

II. Mitochondrial dysfunction assays assessing a gain-of function.

1. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening (PTP).

The opening of the PTP is associated with a permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes, so that different compounds and cellular constituents can change intracellular localization. This can be measured by assessment of the translocation of cytochrome c, adenylate kinase or AIF from mitochondria to the cytosol or nucleus. The translocation can be assessed biochemically in cell fractions, by imaging approaches in fixed cells or tissues or by life-cell imaging of GFP fusion proteins (Single 1998; Modjtahedi 2006). An alternative approach is to measure the accessibility of cobalt to the mitochondrial matrix in a calcein fluorescence quenching assay in live permeabilized cells (Petronilli et al., 1999).

2. mtDNA damage as a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction.

Various quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based assays have been developed to detect changes of DNA structure and sequence in the mitochondrial genome. mtDNA damage can be detected in blood after low-level rotenone exposure, and the damage persists even after CI activity has returned to normal. With a more sustained rotenone exposure, mtDNA damage is also detected in skeletal muscle. These data support the idea that mtDNA damage in peripheral tissues in the rotenone model may provide a biomarker of past or ongoing mitochondrial toxin exposure (Sanders et al., 2014a and 2014b).

3. Generation of ROS and resultant oxidative stress.

a. General approach. Electrons from the mitochondrial ETS may be transferred ‘erroneously’ to molecular oxygen to form superoxide anions. This type of side reaction can be strongly enhanced upon mitochondrial damage. As superoxide may form hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals or other reactive oxygen species, a large number of direct ROS assays and assays assessing the effects of ROS (indirect ROS assays) are available (Adam-Vizi, 2005; Fan and Li 2014). Direct assays are based on the chemical modification of fluorescent or luminescent reporters by ROS species. Indirect assays assess cellular metabolites, the concentration of which is changed in the presence of ROS (e.g. glutathione, malonaldehyde, isoprostanes,etc.) At the animal level the effects of oxidative stress are measured from biomarkers in the blood or urine.

b. Measurement of the cellular glutathione (GSH) status. GSH is regenerated from its oxidized form (GSSH) by the action of an NADPH dependent reductase (GSSH + NADPH + H+ à 2 GSH + NADP+). The ratio of GSH/GSSG is therefore a good indicator for the cellular NADH+/NADPH ratio (i.e. the redox potential). GSH and GSSH levels can be determined by HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, or biochemically with DTNB (Ellman’s reagent). As excess GSSG is rapidly exported from most cells to maintain a constant GSH/GSSG ratio, a reduction of total glutathione (GSH/GSSG) is often a good surrogate measure for oxidative stress.

c. Quantification of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of lipid peroxidation has historically relied on the detection of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive compounds such as malondialdehyde generated from the decomposition of cellular membrane lipid under oxidative stress (Pryor et al., 1976). This method is quite sensitive, but not highly specific. A number of commercial assay kits are available for this assay using absorbance or fluorescence detection technologies. The formation of F2-like prostanoid derivatives of arachidonic acid, termed F2-isoprostanes (IsoP) has been shown to be more specific for lipid peroxidation. A number of commercial ELISA kits have been developed for IsoPs, but interfering agents in samples requires partial purification before analysis. Alternatively, GC/MS may be used, as robust (specific) and sensitive method.

d. Detection of superoxide production. Generation of superoxide by inhibition of complex I and the methods for its detection are described by Grivennikova and Vinogradov (2014). A range of different methods is also described by BioTek ( The reduction of ferricytochrome c to ferrocytochrome c may be used to assess the rate of superoxide formation (McCord, 1968). Like in other superoxide assays, specificity can only be obtained by measurements in the absence and presence of superoxide dismutase. Chemiluminescent reactions have been used for their increased sensitivity. The most widely used chemiluminescent substrate is lucigenin. Coelenterazine has also been used as a chemiluminescent substrate. Hydrocyanine dyes are fluorogenic sensors for superoxide and hydroxyl radical, and they become membrane impermeable after oxidation (trapping at site of formation). The best characterized of these probes are Hydro-Cy3 and Hydro-Cy5. generation of superoxide in mitochondria can be visualized using fluorescence microscopy with MitoSOX™ Red reagent (Life Technologies). MitoSOX™ Red reagent is a cationic derivative of dihydroethidium that permeates live cells and accumulates in mitochondria.

e. Detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. There are a number of fluorogenic substrates, which serve as hydrogen donors that have been used in conjunction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme to produce intensely fluorescent products in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (Zhou et al., 1997: Ruch et al., 1983). The more commonly used substrates include diacetyldichloro-fluorescein, homovanillic acid, and Amplex® Red. In these examples, increasing amounts of H2O2 form increasing amounts of fluorescent product (Tarpley et al., 2004).

Summing up, mitochondrial dysfunction can be measured by: • ROS production: superoxide (O2-), and hydroxyl radicals (OH−) • Nitrosative radical formation such as ONOO− or directly by: • Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) • Opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTP) • ATP synthesis • Increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ • Cytochrome c release • AIF (apoptosis inducing factor) release from mitochondria • Mitochondrial Complexes enzyme activity • Measurements of mitochondrial oxygen consumption • Ultrastructure of mitochondria using electron microscope and mitochondrial fragmentation measured by labelling with DsRed-Mito expression (Knott et al, 2008) Mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress can be measured by: • Reactive carbonyls formations (proteins oxidation) • Increased 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity (DNA oxidation) • Lipid peroxidation (formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4- hydroxynonenal (HNE) • 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, marker of protein nitration • Translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria • Measurement of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i): Cells are loaded with 4 μM fura-2/AM). • Ratio between reduced and oxidized form of glutathione (GSH depletion) (Promega assay, TB369; Radkowsky et al., 1986) • Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activation that is Ca2+-dependent. All above measurements can be performed as the assays for each readout are well established in the existing literature (e.g. Bal-Price and Brown, 2000; Bal-Price et al., 2002; Fujikawa, 2015; Walker et al., 1995). See also KE Oxidative Stress, Increase

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a universal event occurring in cells of any species (Farooqui and Farooqui, 2012). Many invertebrate species (drosophila, C, elegans) are considered as potential models to study mitochondrial function. New data on marine invertebrates, such as molluscs and crustaceans and non-Drosophila species, are emerging (Martinez-Cruz et al., 2012). Mitochondrial dysfunction can be measured in animal models used for toxicity testing (Winklhofer and Haass, 2010; Waerzeggers et al., 2010) as well as in humans (Winklhofer and Haass, 2010).

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.


List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide ( (OECD, 2015). More help

Adam-Vizi V. Production of reactive oxygen species in brain mitochondria: contribution by electron transport chain and non-electron transport chain sources. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005, 7(9-10):1140-1149.

Bal-Price A. and Guy C. Brown. Nitric-oxide-induced necrosis and apoptosis in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondria. J. Neurochemistry, 2000, 75: 1455-1464.

Bal-Price A, Matthias A, Brown GC., Stimulation of the NADPH oxidase in activated rat microglia removes nitric oxide but induces peroxynitrite production. J. Neurochem. 2002, 80: 73-80.

Brand MD, Nicholls DG. Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction in cells. Biochem J. 2011 Apr 15;435(2):297-312.

Braun RJ. (2012). Mitochondrion-mediated cell death: dissecting yeast apoptosis for a better understanding of neurodegeneration. Front Oncol 2:182.

Barrientos A., and Moraes C.T. (1999) Titrating the Effects of Mitochondrial Complex I Impairment in the Cell Physiology. Vol. 274, No. 23, pp. 16188–16197.

Cammen M. Corwin, Susannah Christensen. John P. (1990) Electron transport system (ETS) activity as a measure of benthic macrofaunal metabolism MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES- (65) : 171-182.

Ciapaite, Lolita Van Eikenhorst, Gerco Bakker, Stephan J.L. Diamant, Michaela. Heine, Robert J Wagner, Marijke J. V. Westerhoff, Hans and Klaas Krab (2005) Modular Kinetic Analysis of the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator–Mediated Effects of Palmitoyl-CoA on the Oxidative Phosphorylation in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria Diabetes 54:4 944-951.

Correia SC, Santos RX, Perry G, Zhu X, Moreira PI, Smith MA. (2012). Mitochondrial importance in Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol 724:205 – 221.

Cozzolino M, Ferri A, Valle C, Carri MT. (2013). Mitochondria and ALS: implications from novel genes and pathways. Mol Cell Neurosci 55:44 – 49.

Diepart, C, Verrax, J Calderon, PU, Feron, O., Jordan, BF, Gallez, B (2010) Comparison of methods for measuring oxygen consumption in tumor cells in vitroAnalytical Biochemistry 396 (2010) 250–256.

Farooqui T. and . Farooqui, A. A (2012) Oxidative stress in Vertebrates and Invertebrate: molecular aspects of cell signalling. Wiley-Blackwell,Chapter 27, pp:377- 385.

Fan LM, Li JM. Evaluation of methods of detecting cell reactive oxygen species production for drug screening and cell cycle studies. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2014 Jul-Aug;70(1):40-7.

Fiskum G. Mitochondrial participation in ischemic and traumatic neural cell death. J Neurotrauma. 2000 Oct;17(10):843-55.

Friberg H, Wieloch T. (2002). Mitochondrial permeability transition in acute neurodegeneration. Biochimie 84:241–250.

Fujikawa DG, The Role of Excitotoxic Programmed Necrosis in Acute Brain Injury. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 2015, 13: 212–221.

Graier WF, Frieden M, Malli R. (2007). Mitochondria and Ca2+ signaling: old guests, new functions. Pflugers Arch 455:375–396.

Green DR. (1998). Apoptotic pathways: the roads to ruin. Cell 94:695-698.

Grivennikova VG, Vinogradov AD. Generation of superoxide by the mitochondrial Complex I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006, 1757(5-6):553-61.

Hafner RP, Brown GC, Brand MD: Analysis of the control of respiration rate, phosphorylation rate, proton leak rate and protonmotive force in isolated mitochondria using the ‘top-down’ approach of metabolic control theory. Eur J Biochem188 :313 –319,1990.

Hinkle PC (1995) Measurement of ADP/O ratios. In Bioenergetics: A Practical Approach. Brown GC, Cooper CE, Eds. Oxford, U.K., IRL Press, p.5 –6.

Hynes, J.. Marroquin, L.D Ogurtsov, V.I. Christiansen, K.N. Stevens, G.J. Papkovsky, D.B. Will, Y. (2006)) Investigation of drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity using fluorescence-based oxygen-sensitive probes, Toxicol. Sci. 92 186–200.

James, P.E. Jackson, S.K.. Grinberg, O.Y Swartz, H.M. (1995) The effects of endotoxin on oxygen consumption of various cell types in vitro: an EPR oximetry study, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 18 (1995) 641–647.

Kang J, Pervaiz S. (2012). Mitochondria: Redox Metabolism and Dysfunction. Biochem Res Int 2012:896751.

Kann O, Kovács R. (2007). Mitochondria and neuronal activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C641-576.

Knott Andrew B., Guy Perkins, Robert Schwarzenbacher & Ella Bossy-Wetzel. Mitochondrial fragmentation in neurodegeneration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2008, 229: 505-518.

Llaudet E, Hatz S, Droniou M, Dale N. Microelectrode biosensor for real-time measurement of ATP in biological tissue. Anal Chem. 2005, 77(10):3267-73.

Lee HC, Wei YH. (2012). Mitochondria and aging. Adv Exp Med Biol 942:311-327.

Li N, Ragheb K, Lawler G, Sturgis J, Rajwa B, et al. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. J Biol Chem.2003;278:8516–8525.

Lin MT, Beal MF. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 2006. 443:787-795.

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