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Relationship: 2460


A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

Increased, Reactive oxygen species leads to Increased, LPO

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes.Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Oxidation and antagonism of reduced glutathione leading to mortality via acute renal failure adjacent High Moderate Agnes Aggy (send email) Open for citation & comment
Glutathione conjugation leading to reproductive dysfunction via oxidative stress adjacent High High Allie Always (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Essential element imbalance leads to reproductive failure via oxidative stress non-adjacent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
fish fish High NCBI
mammals mammals High NCBI
Murinae gen. sp. Murinae gen. sp. High NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Unspecific High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER. For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

This KER was identified as part of an Environmental Protection Agency effort to increase the impact of AOPs published in the peer-reviewed literature, but heretofore unrepresented in the AOP-Wiki, by facilitating their entry and update.  The originating work for this AOP was da Silva, J., Goncalves, R. V., de Melo, F. C. S. A., Sarandy, M. M., & da Matta, S. L. P. (2021). Cadmium exposure and testis susceptibility: A systematic review in murine models. Biological Trace Element Research, 199(7), 2663-2676. This publication, and the work cited within, were used create and support this AOP and its respective KE and KER pages.

Evidence for the originating publication was assembled using Medline/PubMed and Scopus in September 2018.  For all databases, the search filters were based on three complementary levels: (i) animals, (ii) testis, and (iii) cadmium and studies that didn't evaluate the Cd exposure in the testicular histomorphology of murine models were excluded.

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help
Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

Biological plausibility of this KER lies in the fact that reactive species, in excess, react and change macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Membrane lipids are particularly susceptible to damage by free radicals, as they are composed by unsaturated fatty acids (Su et al. 2019). Hence, increase in ROS production beyond antioxidant system defense capability of cells enables free circulation of molecules such as O2·−, HO·, H2O2, which removes electrons from membrane lipids and then triggers lipid peroxidation (Auten and Davis 2009; Su et al. 2019). 

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help
Modulating Factor (MF) MF Specification Effect(s) on the KER Reference(s)
antioxidant vitamin E prevents lipid peroxidation Auten and Davis 2009
antioxidant vitamin C prevents lipid peroxidation Auten and Davis 2009
Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

This mechanism can be better understood through a process chain that consists of initiation, propagation and termination, as discussed by (Yin, Xu, and Porter 2011). In their review, these authors summarized a series of chemical reactions that develop during all this self-oxidation process and represent them in a schematic manner, as displayed in figure below.

Furthermore, although phospholipid oxidizability is lower, once their rate of diffusion in membranes is slower, the kinetics for this kind of reaction shown in figure follows the same law of velocity (steady-state rate) of homogeneous systems (equation below) (Yin, Xu, and Porter 2011). Oxygen consumption of the equation represents the rate of steady state, while rate of radical generation is defined by Ri, the constant of propagation rate is expressed as kp and the termination rate constant for the reaction is called kt.

-d[O] / dt = kp / (2kt)1/2. [L-H] . Ri1/2

Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

For instance, empirical evidences show that rat hepatocytes begin ROS production after the first 30 minutes of DEM exposition (5 mM), growing linearly for all the remaining time, whereas the increase in products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) starts only from the first hour of exposure (Tirmenstein et al. 2000).

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

Considering the empirical domain of the evidence, the increased, reactive oxygen species leading to increased, lipid peroxidation is known to occur in fish and mammals, but, based on scientific reasoning, the biologically plausible domain of applicability can be eukaryotic organisms in general. It can be measured at any stage of life and in both male and female species.


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Su, Lian-Jiu, Jia-Hao Zhang, Hernando Gomez, Raghavan Murugan, Xing Hong, Dongxue Xu, Fan Jiang, and Zhi-Yong Peng. 2019. “Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Ferroptosis.” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019 (October): 5080843.

Auten, Richard L., and Jonathan M. Davis. 2009. “Oxygen Toxicity and Reactive Oxygen Species: The Devil Is in the Details.” Pediatric Research 66 (2): 121–27.

Tirmenstein, M. A., F. A. Nicholls-Grzemski, J. G. Zhang, and M. W. Fariss. 2000. “Glutathione Depletion and the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Isolated Hepatocyte Suspensions.” Chemico-Biological Interactions 127 (3): 201–17.

Kalia, Sumiti, and M. P. Bansal. 2008. “Diethyl Maleate-Induced Oxidative Stress Leads to Testicular Germ Cell Apoptosis Involving Bax and Bcl-2.” Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 22 (6): 371–81.

Abarikwu, S. O., E. O. Farombi, and A. B. Pant. 2011. “Biflavanone-Kolaviron Protects Human Dopaminergic SH-SY5Y Cells against Atrazine Induced Toxic Insult.” Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA 25 (4): 848–58.

Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida, Caroline Silveira Martinez, Alyne Goulart Escobar, Taiz Martins da Silva, José Antonio Uranga-Ocio, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Marta Miguel Castro, and Giulia Alessandra Wiggers. 2017. “Egg White-Derived Peptides Prevent Male Reproductive Dysfunction Induced by Mercury in Rats.” Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 100 (February): 253–64.

El-Desoky, Gaber E., Samir A. Bashandy, Ibrahim M. Alhazza, Zeid A. Al-Othman, Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud, and Kareem Yusuf. 2013. “Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina Platensis in Rats.” PloS One 8 (3): e59177.

Ma, Yan, Mingkun Zhu, Liping Miao, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xinyang Dong, and Xiaoting Zou. 2018. “Mercuric Chloride Induced Ovarian Oxidative Stress by Suppressing Nrf2-Keap1 Signal Pathway and Its Downstream Genes in Laying Hens.” Biological Trace Element Research 185 (1): 185–96.

Yin, Huiyong, Libin Xu, and Ned A. Porter. 2011. “Free Radical Lipid Peroxidation: Mechanisms and Analysis.” Chemical Reviews 111 (10): 5944–72.

Auten, Richard L., and Jonathan M. Davis. 2009. “Oxygen Toxicity and Reactive Oxygen Species: The Devil Is in the Details.” Pediatric Research 66 (2): 121–27.