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Event: 1739

Key Event Title

The KE title should describe a discrete biological change that can be measured. It should generally define the biological object or process being measured and whether it is increased, decreased, or otherwise definably altered relative to a control state. For example “enzyme activity, decreased”, “hormone concentration, increased”, or “growth rate, decreased”, where the specific enzyme or hormone being measured is defined. More help

ACE2 binding to viral S-protein

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. The short name should be less than 80 characters in length. More help
ACE2 binding to viral S-protein

Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. Note, KEs should be defined within a particular level of biological organization. Only KERs should be used to transition from one level of organization to another. Selection of the level of biological organization defines which structured terms will be available to select when defining the Event Components (below). More help

Cell term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Organ term

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.The biological context describes the location/biological environment in which the event takes place.  For molecular/cellular events this would include the cellular context (if known), organ context, and species/life stage/sex for which the event is relevant. For tissue/organ events cellular context is not applicable.  For individual/population events, the organ context is not applicable. More help

Key Event Components

Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf.Because one of the aims of the AOP-KB is to facilitate de facto construction of AOP networks through the use of shared KE and KER elements, authors are also asked to define their KEs using a set of structured ontology terms (Event Components). In the absence of structured terms, the same KE can readily be defined using a number of synonymous titles (read by a computer as character strings). In order to make these synonymous KEs more machine-readable, KEs should also be defined by one or more “event components” consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 22 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; See List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling). The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signalling by that receptor).Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description. To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons. If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests. Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add. More help

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
ACE2 binding to viral S protein, Acute respiratory distress MolecularInitiatingEvent Evgeniia Kazymova (send email) Open for comment. Do not cite
Sars-CoV-2 causes encephalitis MolecularInitiatingEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
S glycoprotein, taste impairment MolecularInitiatingEvent Agnes Aggy (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
AE2 dysregulation to microvascular disfunction MolecularInitiatingEvent Brendan Ferreri-Hanberry (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite

Stressors

This is a structured field used to identify specific agents (generally chemicals) that can trigger the KE. Stressors identified in this field will be linked to the KE in a machine-readable manner, such that, for example, a stressor search would identify this as an event the stressor can trigger. NOTE: intermediate or downstream KEs in one AOP may function as MIEs in other AOPs, meaning that stressor information may be added to the KE description, even if it is a downstream KE in the pathway currently under development.Information concerning the stressors that may trigger an MIE can be defined using a combination of structured and unstructured (free-text) fields. For example, structured fields may be used to indicate specific chemicals for which there is evidence of an interaction relevant to this MIE. By linking the KE description to a structured chemical name, it will be increasingly possible to link the MIE to other sources of chemical data and information, enhancing searchability and inter-operability among different data-sources and knowledgebases. The free-text section “Evidence for perturbation of this MIE by stressor” can be used both to identify the supporting evidence for specific stressors triggering the MIE as well as to define broad chemical categories or other properties that classify the stressors able to trigger the MIE for which specific structured terms may not exist. More help
Name
Sars-CoV-2

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) can be selected from an ontology. In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Homo sapiens Homo sapiens High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI

Life Stages

The structured ontology terms for life-stage are more comprehensive than those for taxa, but may still require further description/development and explanation in the free text section. More help
Life stage Evidence
Adult, reproductively mature High
During development and at adulthood High

Sex Applicability

The authors must select from one of the following: Male, female, mixed, asexual, third gender, hermaphrodite, or unspecific. More help
Term Evidence
Mixed High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. For example, the biological state being measured could be the activity of an enzyme, the expression of a gene or abundance of an mRNA transcript, the concentration of a hormone or protein, neuronal activity, heart rate, etc. The biological compartment may be a particular cell type, tissue, organ, fluid (e.g., plasma, cerebrospinal fluid), etc. The role in the biology could describe the reaction that an enzyme catalyses and the role of that reaction within a given metabolic pathway; the protein that a gene or mRNA transcript codes for and the function of that protein; the function of a hormone in a given target tissue, physiological function of an organ, etc. Careful attention should be taken to avoid reference to other KEs, KERs or AOPs. Only describe this KE as a single isolated measurable event/state. This will ensure that the KE is modular and can be used by other AOPs, thereby facilitating construction of AOP networks. More help

Data supporting ACE2 as a cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as a key event.

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is initiated by virus binding to the ACE2 cell-surface receptors (Nature 579, 270–273 ; J. Virol. 94, e00127-20; Nature 588, 327–330) The SARS-CoV-2 surface spike (S) protein accommodates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the target cells by binding to ACE2 and the subsequent internalized together with viral particles into endosomes, reducing surface tissue expression of ACE2. Through bioinformatics analysis, this S protein is cleaved by TMPRSS2 serine protease into the S1 and S2 subunits, which are responsible for ACE 2 receptor recognition and membrane fusion, respectively. The S1 subunit contains a receptor-binding domain (RBD) encompassing the receptor-binding motif (RBM) to bound the ACE2. The S2 contains a fusion peptide (FP), penetrate into cell membrane to enhance fusion with the viral membrane.

Binding of S protein to ACE2 receptors present in the brain (endothelial, neuronal and glial cells)  (in relation to COVID19):

The highest ACE2 expression level in the brain was found in the pons and medulla oblongata in the human brainstem, containing the medullary respiratory centers, and this may in part explain the susceptibility of many COVID-19 patients to severe respiratory distress (Lukiw et al., 2020). High ACE2 receptor expression was also found in the amygdala, cerebral cortex and in the regions involved in cardiovascular function and central regulation of blood pressure including the sub-fornical organ, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, paraventricular nucleus, and rostral ventrolateral medulla (Gowrisankar and Clark 2016; Xia and Lazartigues 2010).

The neurons and glial cells, like astrocytes and microglia also express ACE-2, thus highlighting the vulnerability of the nervous system to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, they also express transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and furin, which facilitate virus entry into the host (Jakhmola et al. 2020).

Once inside the brain, the virus can infect the neural cells, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells express ACE-2, thus initiating the viral budding cycle followed by neuronal damage and inflammation (Jakhmola et al. 2020). Specifically in the brain, ACE2 is expressed in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells (Hamming et al., 2004), as well as in neurons and glia (Gallagher et al., 2006; Matsushita et al., 2010; Gowrisankar and Clark, 2016; Xu et al., 2017; de Morais et al., 2018) (from Murta et al., 2020).

Astrocytes are the main source of angiotensinogen and express ATR1 and MasR; neurons express ATR1, ACE2, and MasR, and microglia respond to ATR1 activation (Shi et al., 2014; de Morais et al., 2018).

How It Is Measured or Detected

One of the primary considerations in evaluating AOPs is the relevance and reliability of the methods with which the KEs can be measured. The aim of this section of the KE description is not to provide detailed protocols, but rather to capture, in a sentence or two, per method, the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements. Methods that can be used to detect or measure the biological state represented in the KE should be briefly described and/or cited. These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA).Key considerations regarding scientific confidence in the measurement approach include whether the assay is fit for purpose, whether it provides a direct or indirect measure of the biological state in question, whether it is repeatable and reproducible, and the extent to which it is accepted in the scientific and/or regulatory community. Information can be obtained from the OECD Test Guidelines website and the EURL ECVAM Database Service on Alternative Methods to Animal Experimentation (DB-ALM). ?

In vitro methods supporting interaction between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

Methodology to identify and prioritize Key Events (KEs) relevant for MIE, Several reports using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) or biolayer interferometry binding (BLI) approaches. to study the interaction between recombinant ACE2 and S proteins have determined a dissociation constant (Kd) for SARS-CoV S and SARS-CoV-2 S as follow,

Reference

ACE2 protein

SARS-CoV S

SARS-CoV2 S

Method

Measured Kd

Wrapp et al., 2020

1–615 aa

306–577 aa

 

SPR

325.8 nM

 

1–1208 aa

14.7 nM

Wang et al., 2020

19–615 aa

306–527 aa

 

SPR

408.7 nM

 

319–541 aa

133.3 nM

Lan et al., 2020

19–615 aa

306–527 aa

 

SPR

31.6 nM

 

319–541 aa

4.7 nM

Walls et al., 2020

1–614 aa

306–575 aa

 

BLI

1.2 nM

 

328–533 aa

5 nM

Wrapp et al., 2020

1–615 aa

306–577 aa

 

BLI

13.7 nM

 

319–591 aa

34.6 nM

Pseudo typed vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SARS-CoV-2 S (VSV-SARS-S2) expression system can be used efficiently infects cell lines, with Calu-3 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, CaCo-2 human colorectal adenocarcinoma colon epithelial cell line and Vero African grey monkey kidney epithelial cell line being the most permissive (Hoffmann et al., 2020; Ou et al., 2020).  It can be measured using a wide variety of assays targeting different biological phases of infection and altered cell membrane permeability and cell organelle signaling pathway. Other assay measured alteration in the levels of permissive cell lines all express ACE2 or hACE2-expressing 293T cell (e.g. pNUO1-hACE2, pFUSE-hIgG1-Fc2), as previously demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) or by immunoblotting are associated with ELISA(W Tai et al., nature 2020). To prioritize the identified potential KEs for selection and to select a KE to serve as a case study, further in-silico data that ACE2 binds to SARS-CoV-2 S is necessary for virus entry. The above analysis outlined can be used evidence-based assessment of molecular evidence as a MIE.

Domain of Applicability

This free text section should be used to elaborate on the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided). While structured terms may be selected to define the taxonomic, life stage and sex applicability (see structured applicability terms, above) of the KE, the structured terms may not adequately reflect or capture the overall biological applicability domain (particularly with regard to taxa). Likewise, the structured terms do not provide an explanation or rationale for the selection. The free-text section on evidence for taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability can be used to elaborate on why the specific structured terms were selected, and provide supporting references and background information.  More help

Receptor recognition is an essential determinant of molecular level in this AOP. ACE2 was reported as an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The viral entry process is mediated by the envelope-embedded surface-located spike (S) glycoprotein.  Jun Lan and Walls, A.C et al (Nature 581, 215–220; Cell 180, 281–292) demonstrated a critical initial step of infection at the molecular level from interaction of ACE2 and S protein. ACE2 has shown that receptor binding affinity to S protein is nM range. To elucidate the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and ACE2 at a higher resolution, they also determined the structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD–ACE2 complex using X-ray crystallography. The expression and distribution of the ACE2 in human body may indicate the potential infection of SARS-CoV-2. Through the developed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) technique and single-cell transcriptomes based on the public database, researchers analyzed the ACE2 RNA expression profile at single-cell resolution. High ACE2 expression was identified in type II alveolar cells (Zou, X. et al. Front. Med.2020)

Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor

Overview for Molecular Initiating Event

When a specific MIE can be defined (i.e., the molecular target and nature of interaction is known), in addition to describing the biological state associated with the MIE, how it can be measured, and its taxonomic, life stage, and sex applicability, it is useful to list stressors known to trigger the MIE and provide evidence supporting that initiation. This will often be a list of prototypical compounds demonstrated to interact with the target molecule in the manner detailed in the MIE description to initiate a given pathway (e.g., 2,3,7,8-TCDD as a prototypical AhR agonist; 17α-ethynyl estradiol as a prototypical ER agonist). Depending on the information available, this could also refer to chemical categories (i.e., groups of chemicals with defined structural features known to trigger the MIE). Known stressors should be included in the MIE description, but it is not expected to include a comprehensive list. Rather initially, stressors identified will be exemplary and the stressor list will be expanded over time. For more information on MIE, please see pages 32-33 in the User Handbook.

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Coronaviridae family, which includes evolutionary related enveloped (+) strand RNA viruses of vertebrates, such as seasonal common coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and CoV-NL63, SARS-CoV

Human viruses strains

Genus

Major cell receptor

First report

Animal reservoir

Intermediate host

Pathology

Diagnostic test

Evidence

HCoV-NL63

Alphacoronavirus

ACE2

2004

Bat

Unknown

Mild respiratory tract illness

RT-PCR, IF, ELISA, WB

Strong

SARS-CoV

Betacoronavirus

ACE2

2003

Bat

Pangolin

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

RT-PCR, IF, ELISA, WB

Strong

SARS-CoV-2

Betacoronavirus

ACE2

2020

Bat

Pangolin

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

RT-PCR, IF, ELISA, WB

Strong

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. Ideally, the list of references, should conform, to the extent possible, with the OECD Style Guide (https://www.oecd.org/about/publishing/OECD-Style-Guide-Third-Edition.pdf) (OECD, 2015). More help

COVID19 References related to CNS:

de Morais SDB, et al. Integrative Physiological Aspects of Brain RAS in Hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018 Feb 26; 20(2):10.

Gallagher PE, et al. Distinct roles for ANG II and ANG-(1-7) in the regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in rat astrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Feb; 290(2):C420-6.

Gowrisankar YV, Clark MA. Angiotensin II regulation of angiotensin-converting enzymes in spontaneously hypertensive rat primary astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem. 2016 Jul; 138(1):74-85.

Hamming I et al. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol. 2004 Jun;203(2):631-7.

Jakhmola S, et al. SARS-CoV-2, an Underestimated Pathogen of the Nervous System. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020.

Lukiw WJ et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity and Neurological Targets in the Brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Aug 25;1-8.

Matsushita T, et al. CSF angiotensin II and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in anti-aquaporin-4 autoimmunity. J Neurol Sci. 2010 Aug 15; 295(1-2):41-5.

Murta et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Impact on the Central Nervous System: Are Astrocytes and Microglia Main Players or Merely Bystanders? ASN Neuro. 2020. PMID: 32878468

Shi A, et al. Isolation, purification and molecular mechanism of a peanut protein-derived ACE-inhibitory peptide. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e111188.

Xia, H. and Lazartigues, E.  Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2: Central Regulator for Cardiovascular Function. Curr. Hypertens. 2010  Rep. 12 (3), 170– 175